Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Od of Whole Food Market Essay

Introduction Organizational behavior and structure are key factors in leading a company to be efficient and successful. Organizational diagnosis models have been created to allow companies to audit themselves to be sure that they are utilizing these key factors correctly. When a firm conducts an organizational diagnosis it is performed to identify strengths and weaknesses in its systems thus developing measures to improve the organizations performance. Knowing which model to use is crucial because misusing models could lead to inaccurate findings. In the following pages I will discuss and compare numerous models to include the 7S Model, the Congruence Model, and the Burke-Litwin Model. After discussing a few issues that Whole Foods Market (WFM) is facing I will recommend which model is best suited for them and explain why. Force Field Analysis This model uses an organizational diagnosis to identify driving forces affecting a company (Falletta, 2005). Force Field analysis enables a company to identify what causes change and what hinders change within a certain organization. This will allow an organization to develop measures that will allow the organizations driving forces to be maximized while the restraining forces are at the same time limited to allow the organization to be more efficient. The drawback to this model is that it is extremely simple and is not the best model for defining specific problems it more or less will allow a company to reach a desired state of affairs and nothing else. Leavitt’s Model This model has task variables, technological variables, structure variables and human variables. The model can be used to evaluate how to change in one of the variables will affect the others, and is best applied in analysis concerning organizational structure and human resources. The strength in this model lays in its simplicity but this can also be viewed as a weakness because the output from the model cannot provide direct causal statements relating to the variables. Likert System Analysis This analysis is best applied in an organization to examine issues relating to motivation, communication, interaction, goal setting, decision making,  control and performance. The Likert System is important in analyzing management systems within an organization and how they affect performance (Falletta, 2005). This model evaluates employee perceptions and how they affect individual and group performance. The main strength of this model is that is uses determined scales which make assessment more qualitative and easier. The drawback of this model is that it is really only good for examining the social aspect affecting an organization and doesn’t consider what affects that processes, structure and the environment have on an organization. McKinsey 7S Framework Variables that are examined in this model include style, staff, systems, skills, strategy, structure, and shared values. This model is applied in an organization to investigate whether or not their inputs such as structure, skills, and strategy align with company objectives (Falletta, 2005). A change in any of the variables will eventually cause changes in the other variables. The model has strength in the form of being able to analyze essential variables that affect an organizations performance and it is simpler to use than some of the other models. However, the model does not take into consideration environmental effects on a company’s effectiveness and operations. Burke-Litwin Model This model includes the following variables; management practices work unit climate, mission and strategy, organizational structure, leadership, task requirements and individual skills, individual needs and values, culture, systems, motivation, and finally individual and organizational performance. The Burke-Litwin Model can be used to investigate not only internal but external factors that influence an organization and further goes to show how the factors interact (Martins & Coetzee, 2009). Most believe this to be one of the most robust and overall better OD models to use for analysis because it provides the nature and direction of influence of organizational variables. This model also provides a difference between transformational and transactional dynamics. The strength of this model is that it is able to analyze organizational structure, task requirements, individual skills, and the external environment all at the same time. Congruence Model This model contains inputs, throughputs, and outputs and is best used in an organization to identify the degree to which the needs, objectives and structures of one part of an organization are congruent to the needs, objectives and structure of another part (Falletta, 2005). Its strength is in the obvious ability it has to show organizations how to improve efficiency and effectiveness. The model’s main weakness is that it does not evaluate effect of demands made by the environment (Nadler & Tushman, 1980). Current Issues WFM is Facing Perhaps the largest issue that WFM faces is the price of their goods. The fact of the matter is not everyone who wants natural and organic foods can enjoy the WFM experience. There is no surprise in the fact that organic and natural food is more expensive than other groceries and in times of economic downtown if customers don’t feel they are getting a good deal then they will most likely seek cheaper alternatives. What this means is when someone’s budget shrinks they won’t be able to purchase as much at WFM vs. one of their competitors. Another issue that is just as important to WFM is new entrants to the organic and natural foods market with companies like Wal Mart, Kroger and other larger, cheaper supermarkets. These big name companies are starting to create their own private label brands to compete with WFM but since a majority of their business is derived from products that aren’t natural and organic they can cut prices in this segment of the market to attract customers to their store while not taking a huge loss in profits. The final issue facing WFM is the threat of substitute products and services. One major competitor of WFM is Trader Joe’s Co. who also offers upscale groceries such as health foods and organic produce. One strength of WFM over Wal Mart and Kroger are their unique store atmospheres that most big box stores lack but companies like Trader Joe’s threaten WFM with their own â€Å"Mom and Pop† substitute atmosphere. Another company like this was Wild Oats which WFM was able to acquire to lessen some of their competition. What Model is Best for WFM? Given the set of organizational diagnosis models from Falletta, I believe the most useful one for analyzing Whole Foods Market will be the Burke-Litwin Model. According to Falletta, and many others in the realm of OD say that this model provides a strong approach for analyzing relationships among leadership an d strategy, financial decisions and operational issues. All three of the issues that WFM is facing I believe could benefit from some changes via this OD model. The fact that this model investigates internal and external factors influencing an organization and further helps show how factors interact sets this model ahead of many of the earlier OD models that exist and some even discussed above. For example an external factor like how the economy is doing largely affects WFM because customers know there are cheaper alternatives and early OD models like the Force Field Model would not be able to use this factor to help better situate the company. The Burke-Litwin Model however will take the external environment into consideration during its diagnosis. In fact all three issues listed above that WFM is facing can be categorized as dealing mostly with external environment issues. Something that only an open systems model could handle. Another reason I believe that The B-L Model should be used by WFM is the fact that it can distinguish between the culture and climate of an organization and also between transformational and transactional dynamics (Falletta, 2005). Obviously in the big picture this fact is important because almost no other model does this. This is important for WFM because their brand, image, store atmosphere are crucial in keeping their customers and getting new customers so not being able to diagnose these areas correctly could be traumatic for them. I think transformational and transactional leadership principles can largely affect an organization . Specifically I think that if a good transformational leadership principle is enacted throughout an organization it is visible to the outside through things such as employees motivation and personality towards customers. This is important for WFM because of the type of atmosphere they are trying to create inside their stores. Using this model could help diagnose this variable and give another reason to customers to shop at WFM and not at one  of its competitors who is offering a substitute product. I believe the same principle applies to the variables of climate and culture. Most of the other models combine these two variables but as we know now these two variables need to be set apart and the B-L model is the model that allows for that. As already mentioned above the companies climate and culture are two things that can be controlled and if used effectively cannot only help the business for obvious reasons but I believe these are two variables that would especially help WFM because these are variables that outsiders can pick up on when things are going good or even wrong. Take Apple for example, the climate and culture of this company create a mysterious phenomenon that brings its customers closer to the company. You can’t say this for Microsoft or Samsung. This is something that WFM could use more of to again out compete with Trader Joe’s. Conclusion In closing, since the 50’s there have been numerous OD models created and each one building upon the last. Organizations today now have many options when it comes to OD and which model to use but knowing which model to use is just as important as getting an accurate OD. By comparing all the models and identifying the issues an organization currently has one can better diagnose the situation. For WFM I believe the Burke-Litwin Model would best suit them and solve the issues described above.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Critical Summary of Conflicts as Property Essay

Introduction The article I will be critically summarizing is â€Å"Conflict as Property†. It is an influential article written by the criminologist Nils Christie in the late 1970s. Throughout the entire article Christie argues â€Å"criminology to some extent has amplified a process where conflicts have been taken away from the parties directly involved and thereby have either disappeared or become other peoples property†1 This statement is what I have found to be Christies thesis in which all of his points refer back to. Christies Argument Throughout the article Christie reflects on why he believes the conflict between two parties, the victim and defendant has been â€Å"stolen† by the authorities, the state, and by professionals. Christie said that not only does the victim loose his or her say in the proceedings but is relatively thrown out of the case in which it becomes between one party and the state. He found this unsatisfying and argued that it should be given back to the initial parties involved, the victim, the defendant and the neighborhood. He says when a conflict is created that we are less capable to take on the situation and are more likely to hand it off to some one else. This is where there is a lineup of professionals willing to take the conflict from us and we are just as willing to give it away. Christie explains his notion of â€Å"conflict as property† as not referring to material compensation but rather to the ownership of the conflict itself. He then recognizes the effects of victim losing the â€Å"property† initially and puts forth a method as a remedy for this process. He proposes a new court model for dealing with conflicts in which the court is victim centered and lay-oriented. My Opinion For most of the part I agree with what Christie has to say. I believe that throughout a proceeding it should be of most importance that the victim’s situation is to be heard whether it is relevant to the law or not. Instead of letting the state or professionals take over and say what they think has the most relevance to a case the court should hear the entire story from the victims point of view. This would show the courts to what affect this act by the offender has caused in the victims life. Also they should hear out what the victim seems fit as a fair punishment or payment in forms of restitution whether it is labour or monetary to go along with the judges sentence. I think that by having the initial parties involved instead of being pushed to the side, society will be more concerned to make sure that everyone is given a fair, equal, and consistent resolution to a conflict. It would ensure that the neighborhood and state have the same set of shared values and goals that the y are working towards to support social order. Most offenders after committing crimes do not want to see the victims or their families that they affected. It is an emotional encounter in the courtroom where the offender can show his remorse and the victim(s) can show pity I think that the two types of segmentation that are observed in our highly industrialized societies are the most important factors in why we don’t have the ability to deal with conflict. The segmentation in space is how we go through our daily lives and not recognizing any of the people we see as who they are but by what they do. Secondly we segregate people based on their physical attributes such as race, gender, and sex. This segregation has many consequences on society as a whole. The most influential consequence that we experience is depersonalization as Christie said. Not having this person-to-person relationship is detrimental, especially when conflicts arise seeing as how we can’t deal with them between the parties involved. We need professionals to step in and take the roles from us, which results in us being cast aside. Conclusion â€Å"Except for execution, castration or incarceration for life, no measure has a proven minimum of efficiency compared to any other measures†2 instead of continuing with the traditional way of a legal proceeding we need to change  things. People need to be able to interact face to face and have a more personal interaction. Conflicts must be given back to the initial parties and not â€Å"stolen† by these other powers. Is it not what somebody deserves? To have a case in which they are heard. Bibliography Nils Christie, â€Å"Conflict as Property† (1977) 17:4 The British Journal of Criminology Pg. 1-15

Monday, July 29, 2019

Accounts Sba Essay Example for Free

Accounts Sba Essay ? The aim of my project is for me to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the financial sector of the business world. To draw up the financial records for the year 2009 for Jen’s Supermarket and to comment on the entity’s performance using appropriate tools of Analysis Description and Overview Jen’s Supermarket is a developed and simulated entity owned by Jenevonne Kirton, who is the sole proprietor. Jen’s Supermarket is a developed supermarket which sells a variety of food items and miscellaneous goods, serving most of the island in its convenient location. The supermarket employ fifteen staff along with Ms. The capital at beginning was 202800 while at end it was 208165 which showed an increase by 5365 at the end of the month. Suggestions/Recommendations Current Ratio It is recommended that Jen’s Supermarket 1. Uses the excess money to expand the business by opening another supermarket. 2. Introduce new product to the business and purchase new equipment. Gross Profit It is suggested that Jen’s Supermarket should 1. Source cheaper suppliers to facilitate the demand of goods so profitability would be greater at the end of the month. 2. Offer new promotions every week and offer the customers raffles at a chance to win prizes at the end of the year. These are given to help Jen’s Supermarket increase gross profit and sales. Conclusion It is clear that Jen’s Supermarket keeps adequate records for the business to demonstrate the profitability over the financial period for the month. It could however, increase the current ratio and gross profit by incorporating the suggestions/recommendations outlined. Nevertheless Jen’s Supermarket made a good net profit for the month of December in 2009. Overall based on the performance of the business Jen’s Supermarket was able to make a profit of 6365 despite the low sales of 104 850. Accounts Sba. (2018, Nov 13).

See intructions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

See intructions - Essay Example The person or group of persons is what Hobbes calls sovereign (Lloyd-Hughes 151). The sovereign enters into a covenant with the people to provide them with peace and defense in return for surrendering their rights. However, he or she is guided by laws and in case the sovereign fails to protect the subjects, they can remove him from power. The citizens thus accept such a sovereign in order to ensure peace and protection. In state of nature, men are competitive and need someone to safeguard their property. Q2: Hobbes: State of Nature In the state of nature according to Hobbes, the life of man is â€Å"solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short† (Lloyd-Hughes 149). Men in this state are equal in body and minds thus become enemies often. Moreover they are primitive thus have â€Å"no industry, culture, cannot account for time, have no arts and no society† (149). As s result, these men quarrel most of the time as they compete with each other. They become brutish and nasty and solitary as they live in continued fear and danger of death. Furthermore, they are not aware of what is right or wrong thus engage in war against each other all the time. They are also poor and do not have accommodation or own property. It is the sovereign who apportions them land and proscribes rules of ownership after a government is formed. Q3: Liberty According to natural laws all men have the natural right of liberty and as such, use such liberty to preserve his life. Even though the renounce this right for greater gain to the sovereign, they never lose the right to life and liberty (Lloyd-Hughes 150). However, there are boundaries to these liberties. An individual cannot use this liberty to inflict harm on himself or others as consequences follow as set out in the laws of the land. Liberty is to be used only to do what is profitable to them. Liberty is also limited to the particular commonwealth as each jurisdiction has its own laws what is acceptable by one nation may not be acceptable by another. Subjects also have a right to sue against subjects for violating their rights. Q4: Machiavelli: Skill (virtu) and Fortune (Fortuna) Nicollo Machiavelli in the Prince did differentiate between skill and fortune. He referred to fortune as the ability to become a prince through luck or opportunities. For example the Theseus succeeded to conquer Athenians because Athenians were dispersed (Lloyd-Hughes 91-92). That is sheer luck and wise kinds should not rely on it as fortunes can change any time. Many princes inherited dynasties but could not keep them due to lack of skills; for example, the king of Naples. Great princes are those who have the skills and ability to control fortunes such as ruthlessness, bravery and pride. This is due to the fact that â€Å"fortune rules half of our actions†¦.the other half is determined by skill and ability† (91). He says that God sends us floods but men can change future events by taking actions that can control the f loods in future. Q5: Is It Better for Ruler to be Loved or Feared? For Machiavelli, most people would like to be loved and feared at the same time but it is much better to be feared than loved. This is because in their nature, men are â€Å"ungrateful, fickle, false, and cowardly† (Lloyd-Hughes 97). As such, these men give promises to the ruler only to retreat when things get worse. They do everything for their own interest and betray you at any time. He also claims that men love on their own will

Sunday, July 28, 2019

The Process of Protein Purification Literature review

The Process of Protein Purification - Literature review Example Vaccines, gene therapy and replacement (such as that in insulin-deficiency) all have helped in improving health conditions, and have been based on good elucidation of structures, research on structure-function relationships, and establishment of protein purification specific to the amino acid sequence present. With this in mind, this particular study designed a protocol to purify and characterize the a synthesis of cytochrome oxidase (SCO)-1-like protein 3966 in Streptomyces lividans. As will be seen later, better understanding of SCO proteins is still warranted, as many potential functions of these types of proteins are unclear. Moreover, SCO is a vital enzyme as the cytochrome oxidase c, and in essence the electron chain transport of the mitochondrial respiration mechanism, depends on it. Initial studies of homologues in bacteria have been the usual first step in protein characterization. Many proteins in the eukaryotic cells have been proven to have functional and structural counterparts in bacterial cells. Because of the relative ease of bacterial replication and protein purification, it is thus a method of choice in conducting in depth studies of proteins. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE I. Protein Purification There are factors to consider in doing protein purification. ... There are many kinds of column chromatography, ion-exchange, affinity, and size exclusion are just some of the more usual protein purification procedures that may be done. Affinity chromatography uses antibodies for a specific protein as part of the column through which the protein solution passes. Although it is highly specific, it is more expensive and much harder to prepare. Size exclusion, on the other hand, depends on the differences of molecular weights of the proteins that are present in the solution. In general, proteins with high molecular weight are eluted fastest as they are not able to get into the small spaces of the column, making their path down the column less impeded. On the other hand, low molecular weight proteins still pass through the tiny spaces within the column, thus slowing down their descent. Although much easier to prepare than an affinity column, a size exclusion chromatography column is less specific, as different proteins of similar weigh are eluted out at the same time, despite them having differences in characteristics, such as the isoelectric point (Burgess, 2008).. For ion exchange chromatography, these beads are charged, thus attracting the oppositely-charged proteins present in the solution to be passed through the column. Depending on the objective of the experiment, the eluent or the bound proteins are collected for further processing such as concentrating. To get the proteins bound on the beads, salt solutions of graded concentrations are passed onto the column. As the concentration of the salt increases, the beads will more likely bind to the salt than to the proteins. Thus, weak ionic proteins are bound weakly

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Australian Rural Health-The Role Of Nursing Practice Essay

Australian Rural Health-The Role Of Nursing Practice - Essay Example The recruitment and retention is a challenging aspect as the growing need for rural health care demands more and more skilled and service oriented individuals. The employees especially ladies have to work in the alien work environment. The responsibility will be more and accountability will be more when compared to the nurses working in the urban environment. The job activities demand more individuality and pressure handling mentality to cope with the emergencies arising. The supporting staff and equipment will be less when compared to nurses working in urban hospitals The future projections state that there will be an acute shortage in the rural health camps as many skilled veterans will be retiring. The recruitment pace didn’t gather momentum. The demand for the skilled workforce in nursing was not met. The retention is another major hurdle as the individuals are isolated from the social and family to serve the community. The employees cannot avoid their personal life for lo nger durations and opt to retain them which may affect the service pace of the community health services. The employees will not be paid extra for opting to work in rural areas. The salaries are not encouraging to them to perceive the job with more confidence and with dedication. The growth will be at snail pace where their counterparts in cities earning more. The performance appraisal and incentives are not provided to lift their spirits. Moreover, the nurses have to accommodate to the new culture and traditions to serve in the remote areas.... extension of the nursing role into that of many other health professions; The recruitment & retention of the nurses The recruitment and retention is a challenging aspect as the growing need of rural health care demands more and more skilled and service oriented individuals. The employees especially ladies have to work in alien work environment. The responsibility will be more and accountability will be more when compared to the nurses working in the urban environment. The job activities demand more individuality and pressure handling mentality to cope with the emergencies arising .The supporting staff and equipment will be less when compared to nurses working in urban hospitals The future projections state that there will be an acute shortage in the rural health camps as many skilled veterans will be retiring .The recruitment pace didn't gather momentum. The demand for the skilled workforce in nursing was not met. The retention is another major hurdle as the individuals are isolated from the social and family to serve the community. The employees cannot avoid their personal life for longer durations and opt to retain them which may affect the service pace of the community health services. The employees will not be paid extra for opting to work in rural areas. The salaries are not encouraging to them to perceive the job with more confidence and with dedication .The growth will be at snail pace where their counter parts in cities earning more. The performance appraisal and incentives are not provided to lift their spirits. More over the nurses have to accommodate to the new culture and traditions to serve in the remote areas.. Workplace issues, include safety, intra- and inter-professional relationships, maintaining

Friday, July 26, 2019

Movie Heat Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Heat - Movie Review Example This film review will discuss some of the technical aspects of Heat by using appropriate filmic terminology to describe its various sections. Particular scenes will be analyzed in order to fully grasp these terms and will be compared to the rest of the film. A synopsis at the beginning of the review will reveal the story line and introduce the characters before the technical analysis takes place; whilst the conclusion underlines these important aspects in the final closing. The film follows the trail of two men. One, an LAPD homicide officer named Vincent Hanna who is so obsessed with his work that he's failing his third marriage. Hanna lurks the streets of LA like a tiger, pestering those who are up to no good, while his personal life falls into dismay. The other, a life long expert criminal named McCauley, is simply doing what he knows best - committing crime. He also lives a lonely existence, making no personal connections that he couldn't walk out on at a moment's notice. He and his crew are after one last score; this being a bank hold up that could land them more than 12 million dollars. As these two hard-boiled men go about their business, they increasingly become aware of each other; predator and prey, and they begin to gain a certain respect for one another. Nevertheless both know that they're on a collision course with fate - and each other. While in the end, only one will be left standing. In the subsequent scene which is to be discussed, Neil is gathering with one of Van Zant's men at an old drive in Movie Theater to accumulate his money. The deal goes awry and turns into a weapons clash between Neil's crew and Van Zant's henchmen. After Neil finds only shreds of blank paper in the package, he makes a phone call to Van Zant and threatens to kill him. Color and lighting play significant functions in the telephone discussion. Neil is in a cafe, under high key white lighting. Van Zant is in a dark office with only blue low key lighting from one side and a little light coming through an open door behind him. As soon as Van Zant understands that his life is in danger, someone closes the door behind him and he is left with only cold blue lighting on one side of his face. By the end of the scene, as Van Zant hangs up the telephone, most of the frame is considerably black and he is consumed by the shadows. In the meantime, Neil is still under high key lighting in the cafe. The dramatic difference in color and lighting key strongly accentuates the danger in which Van Zant faces. During the telephone conversation, a typical two shot cannot be used. Instead, both characters are shown in full front or profile positions at medium or close-up range. The audience can fully see the emotion on both characters' faces as they talk. Neil means business and Van Zant is evidently shaken. The shots of Van Zant also go from loosely framed, to tightly framed during the conversation. He shifts from being free (using up only a quarter of the frame) to being trapped. By the end of the conversation, the camera illustrates only close-ups of Van Zant - who has nowhere to run. These close-ups are also used to show facial expressions in the telephone conversation. After Van Zant slowly hangs up the phone, a close-up of his face shows his intense fear and cold eyes staring far into the distance. He is

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Business Essay about Mergers Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business about Mergers - Essay Example It is vital to note that federal and state laws are controlling systems for mergers. This occurs for notable reasons. To begin with, the government regulates such arrangements because of the elimination to competition (Halibozek & Kovacich, 2005). Competition is beneficial for the government because it drives entrepreneurship. Large firms motivate smaller firms to strive to their levels. In the event of the same, the smaller firms expand to generate substantial revenues for the governments (Truitt, 2004). In addition, such firms expand their marketing scope by improving on aspects such as advertising. This means that there is an interrelation, of firms, that create mutual benefits among the same. In turn, industries provide employment to population and accord social benefits to particular countries. In the sense of mergers, the same minimizes competition between the bigger and small firm. It is vital to note that mergers benefit the bigger firms in terms of pushing the same towards m aintaining their market capture. On the other hand, it is vital to note that mergers could result controlled market power. This relates to the power of monopolies. In this aspect, monopolies could exploit the market in two notable ways. To begin with, they would minimize on their output. This results into deficient products for consumers. In addition, monopolies would constrain output and raise prices. This reduces on the relative income of consumers because their previous income affords fewer goods. The monopolies ensure interaction of these two aspects in order that they generate super normal profits. The reason why the same is exploitation relates to the idea that consumers pay for products at a value that exceeds the production costs of the same. It is vital to note that consumer welfare demands production at a level whereby production costs equal prices. Production costs relates to marginal costs in economics (Mankiw, 2006). Mergers cause monopolies that may create other econom ical dangers. This relates to the idea that they could prevent growth of other firms. Monopolies acquire expansion advantages in the form of economies of scale. In this sense, other firms experience a difficulty in reaching the minimum efficient scale. It is vital to note that the minimum efficient scale refers to the state of production where a firm acquires maximum benefits out of the same (Mankiw, 2006). It is the most prominent level of production. This means that the merged firms would become the sole operators in the market. In the end, smaller firms would strive to rise and extinguish sooner. In case of an industry’s decision towards self-expansion, there would be notable obstacle to the same. This relates to the idea that such a firm would expand by use of capital projects. The benefits of self-expansion relates to the idea of self-dependence. In this sense, an industry faces limited obstacle form actions of other firms. It is vital to note that self-expansion leads t o maximum benefits because a firm enjoys all its revenues (Truitt, 2004). However, the aspect, of capital projects, constrains the same in the quest for independent expansion. To begin with, capital projects consume significant resources in the same. This poses notable dangers. For instance, the industry would require huge amounts of capital for expansion. In case it utilizes its own capital, it will constrain the advancement of

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Wabash Watershed Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Wabash Watershed - Essay Example There is also a relevant trend for the cycle of increase of temperature if we based it on the average annual maximum temperature in the Wabash valley watershed based on the 5-year and 10-year data from 1961 to 1990. It started higher somewhere in 1961 then went to a downward spiral somewhere in 1981 and 1982, but again it surged higher back to the temperature equivalent to almost one unit experienced in 1961 based on a 10-year covered data. The above trends are consistent with the overall trend of the average annual temperature in the Wabash valley watershed. There is a remarkable cycle of temperature increase, starting with the lower one in 1961, then a relative increase along the way, and decrease in 1981 and again a remarkable increase of the graph slope until 1990. This trend significantly shows a cycle of temperature increase, but reveals us the point that in totality there is an observed temperature increase within the range of time between the years 1961 to 1990. To look at it a specific level, we can also observe the average daily temperature range in the Wabash valley watershed. The graphical representation shows a downward trend from 1961 to 1990 based on the average 5 and 10-year data. This is in fulfilment to the envisioned scenario of some theorists that there is a more pronounced warming of minimum temperatures than maximum temperatures, which we can relatively observe as realistic if we based in on the graphical trend representations. Furthermore, this could be observed from a reduced range of temperatures, which we significantly see from the decreasing trend of the average daily temperature from 1961 to 1990, as the 5-year and 10-year average data show. The evidence of drought and water surplus To investigate the evidence of drought and water surplus conditions for inland or continental locations, we can look at the trends in precipitation amounts and the frequency of certain amounts of precipitation taking place at Wabash valley watershed. Glob al warming theorists believe that global warming phenomenon foresees drought and less surplus water conditions for inland or continental locations. The average annual precipitation in the Wabash valley watershed generally has an increasing trend starting from 1961 to 1990 and if we also based it on the 5-year and 10-year data. On the average annual days of light precipitation in the Wabash valley watershed, the trend remarkably goes high and even higher starting from 1982 to 1990, 5-year and 10-year data. This trend is also remarkably observed if we based it on the average annual days of precipitation in the Wabash valley watershed, as there is a depiction of increasing trend from 1961 to 1990. On the other hand, the average annual surplus in the Wabash valley watershed relatively increases to fewer inches, higher in fewer inches from 1961 compared to the level in 1990. Between these corresponding years, there is also evidence to suggest that the surplus level tends to maintain a hi gher trend compared from 1961. Expectation from a warming climate As there is evidence to support the overall warming of the environment based on the data generated from Wabash valley watershed, the average annual actual evapotranspiration has an increasing trend starting from 1961 to 1990.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Annual report for Intercontinental Hotels Group plc for the year ended Essay

Annual report for Intercontinental Hotels Group plc for the year ended 31 December 2011 - Essay Example $ in mn Revenue and Profits 2011 2010 % Inc. Sales 1768 1628 8.60 Operating profit 559 444 25.90 Exceptional items 35 15 133.33 Total operating profit 594 459 29.41 Profit before exceptional items 497 382 30.10 Tax -120 -98 22.45 Profit from continuing operations 377 284 32.75 Exceptional items 83 7 1085.71 Net profit including exceptional items 460 291 58.08 Financial position Good will and other intangible assets 400 358 11.73 Other non-current assets 1990 1952 1.95 Total non-current assets 2390 2310 3.46 Current assets 578 466 24.03 Total assets 2968 2776 6.92 Total current liabilities 860 921 -6.62 Total non-current liabilities 1553 1564 -0.70 Total liabilities 2413 2485 -2.90 Shareholders’ funds 555 291 90.72 Total capital employed 2968 2776 6.92 No. of shares 289472651 Shares issued during the year 1075438 Total number of shares 290548089 289472651 Financial Ratios Earnings per share (EPS) Profit from continuing operations/ 1.30 0.98 Number of shares outstanding ROCE Net income/Capital employed 12.70% 10.23% Operating profit margin (Excl. exceptional items) Operating profit /Capital employed 31.62% 27.27% Operating profit margin (Incl. exceptional items) Total Operating profit /Capital employed 33.60% 28.19% Net profit margin after tax (Excl. exceptional items) Net profit after tax excl. excep. items/Capital employed 21.32% 17.44% Net profit margin after tax (Incl. excep. items) Net profit after tax incl. excep. items/Capital employed 26.02% 17.87% Asset turnover Total sales/Total assets 0.60 0.59 Current ratio Current assets/Current liabilities 0.67 0.51 Acid test ratio Quick assets/Current liabilities 0.64 0.49 Receivables collection period Debtors (Trade and other receivables) 369.00 371.00 Total debtors/Sales x 365 76.18 83.18 Payables payment period Creditors (Trade and other payables) 707.00 722.00 Total purchases or cost of sales 771.00 753.00 Creditors/Cost of sales x 365 334.70 349.97 Gearing Total debt/Total equity 4.35 8.54 Interest cove r Interest charges (Interest) 64.00 64.00 Earnings before interest and tax (EBIT)/Interest 5.89 4.44 Price earnings ratio Share price as on 31 December ?11.57 ?12.43 Share price / EPS 8.92 12.67 Dividend cover Dividend paid to shareholders 148 121 Dividend paid/Net income 2.55 2.35 Revenue per available room Revenue per available room is up by 6.2% Revenue per room has been calculated by the company by dividing the total room revenue by the number of room nights available. Analysis of the financial performance and position InterContinental Hotels Group is a global hotel company, operating seven highly-respected brands internationally. Total number of rooms operating under IHG brands is 658,348 (4,480 hotels). IHG’s portfolio of brands includes Inter Continental Hotels & Resorts, Crowne Plaza Hotels & Resorts, Hotel Indigo, The Holiday Inn, Staybridge Suites and Candlewood Suites. The performance of the management should be viewed in relation to the industry for the purpose of meaningful evaluation. The revenue per availab

Three Business Types Essay Example for Free

Three Business Types Essay Barber Shop This is a small service oriented business. It is established by one individual with the purpose of providing barbing services to the community. It provides the people of the community a place to go and have their hair cut without having to go extra distance to get hair cuts. Setting up a barber shop is not so financially demanding as all you will need is a location (shop), hair clipper(s), chair(s) and mirrors. I essence if you are renting a shop the bulk of the expenses in setting up the barber’s shop will be the shop itself. The owner of the barber’s shop in my community is skilled in the barbing of hair and so when he started out he was alone and did not have to employ the services of another barber. It was the skill he possessed that prompted him to choose to start a business of barbing. Today, with prudent financial management, excellent services and perfect customer relation he has grown the barber shop so much that he has 10 barbers working for him; and he doesn’t have to do barbing jobs himself except for very important customers. What led the owner to choose this business are:Â   (1) he has the skills; (2) proximity to market, and; (3) it is not so financially demanding to set up. Football Club The community football club is a business that is listed on the stock exchange and thus provides for general ownership by everybody within and outside the community. The business of this football club is entertainment which is also more of service inclined. It also does merchandising of its jerseys and other club memorabilia. What must have led the initial owners of this business to form it was to provide entertainment and also bring popularity to the community through the sporting prowess of her football team. In other words, it was not established for profit but overtime and with stronger popularity, the money started coming in. Energy Company This corporation started with exploration and exploitation of oil then realising that it could maximise profit going full circle into the energy industry built its own refinery and power generation machine that runs on the fuel it exploits and refines. Today it not only generates and sells electric energy and petroleum fuel; it also builds refineries and electric plants for other companies and governments across the world. The global demand for energy and the need to meet this demand must have prompted the owners of this business to set up the company that has become one of the world’s leading energy corporations. Because of the huge energy demand on a global scale there is a guarantee of huge returns on investment. Reference; sourced 00:45 GMT +1, 2/10/06

Monday, July 22, 2019

Exchange Relationship Essay Example for Free

Exchange Relationship Essay 1. Introduction Sociologists have long accepted that exchange relationship is a preliminary part of human interaction (Homans 1958; Emerson 1972; Blau 1986). In general, it is accepted by people that who have treated them well should be rewarded and those who have treated them unfriendly or bad should be punished (Gouldner, 1960; Perugini, Gallucci, Presaghi, Ercolani, 2003; Eisenberger, Lynch, Aselage, Rohdieck, 2004). The concept of exchange relationship is a joint activity of two or more people in which individual has something the other values. The specific task in exchange relationship is to bring benefit for people by exchanging behaviors or goods that many people cannot achieve alone (Thibaut Kelley 1959; Homans 1961; Emerson 1972). Exchange relationship originally formulated by Thibaut and Kelley (1959) and Emerson (1972). It is developed and extended by Emerson and Cook (1978) and Molm (1989). Exchange relationship between two people, who exchange resources with each other. People could be individuals or groups. Each individual resource in the exchange relationship are items in that peoples behavior that produce consequences of value for the other people (Emerson, 1972). Firstly, the valued consequences of among people may be tangible objects like money or goods, social rewards such as status or approval, or psychological states such as happiness or self-esteem. The exchange relationship provides people with opportunities to exchange resources, the relations changing in the frequency with opportunities are used after a period of time and the value and distribution of exchange. Since people provide valued benefits for one another, they are depends on each other or interdependence. Interdependence between people varies directly with the value of the benefit other people can provide, or conversely with the availability of the benefit to themselves from alternative sources (Emerson, 1972). These alternatives are other exchange relations as well, connected to each other in larger exchange networks. If exchange in one relation affects the other relation, the two relations are connected. Network connections are positive to the degree that exchange in one relation is accompanying by exchange in the other. On the other hand, negative to the degree that exchange in one relation is without accompanying by the other (Emerson, 1972). Exchange relationship had been used as a fundamental to social stability. According to the Gouldner (1960) existence of the mutual exchanges of benefits is to make the social system to be stable. Flynn and Brockner (2003) stated that both givers and receivers prefer to engage in the exchange in ways that strengthen the relationship with one another. They do not want to engage the exchange relationship in the ways that harm the particular relationship in order to make a stable social system. Exchange relationship serves as a starting mechanism to initiate the social interaction. As refer to Emerson (1972) indicated that the consequences for social relation and social structure are regularly resulting in the exchange relationship as the dependent variable. It is believe that people always form a relationship is resulting from the exchange with attention to gain a certain benefits. It also can help people to interpret, cope and adapt to the relationship formed through the exchange relationship (Larsen Buss, 2005). The exchange relationship has been at the heart of economics theory from the beginning and anthropologists such as Malinowski (1922), Mauss (1925) and Strauss (1969) focused attention on the social implications of exchange. These varied social science perspectives share the observation that exchange can be done through different forms of interaction, including negotiation, gift-giving, and even implicit understandings of direct or indirect reciprocity among individuals in networks, groups, or communities. The resulting social structures and the consequences for social relations are often taken as dependent variables in exchange relationship (Emerson, 1972) 2.0 Content 2.1 What is Ethics? The word ethics comes from the Greek â€Å"ethos† which means the customs, habits and morals of people (Trimble Dickson, 2010). Ethics is defined as a set of moral principles or values. This is the most common way of defining â€Å"ethics† as norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour (Resnik, 2011). According to Crommelin and Pline (2007) stated that ethic distinguishes between what is good and bad; determines moral duty and obligations; and establishes principles of conduct for an individual and a professional group. According to Velasquez (2001), he defined ethics as â€Å"The principle of conduct or behaviour that govern an individual or a group of people.† Ferrell, Fraedrich and Ferrell (2010) have also defined ethics as â€Å"Inquiry into the nature and ground of morality†¦Ã¢â‚¬  In fact, ethics is deï ¬ ned as the systematic reï ¬â€šection on what is moral. Morality is the judgment of standards and conducts which an individual or group has about what is right and wrong, or good and bad (Velasquez, 2001). Essentially, ethics is the process of examining the moral standards of a person or society in which the degree of reasonableness in applying the moral standards to concrete situations is determined. In short, people need to systematically reflect on what people think is right or wrong. In regards to this, developing a body of moral standards that are reasonable for people to accept and apply to the choices people have to make in life, is the ultimate aim of ethics (Velasquez , 2001). Ethics is a requirement for human life. It is important in adaption of human behaviour (Gintis, Bowles, Boyd Fehr, 2003). Ethical behaviour versus unethical behaviour are based upon the degree to which a proposed act is perceived as right versus wrong, good versus evil, fair versus unfair (Roman, 2003). Human actions would be random and aimless if without ethics. According to Landauer and Rowlands (2001), people are able to organize their action to accomplish their most important values through a degree of rational ethical standard is taken. Humans feel honour toward ethical action and shame toward acting unethically because of human nature as moral beings. So, any flaw in ethics will reduce ability to be successful in the effort. 2.2 Exchange Relationships Exchange relationships refer to the dyadic interaction in which the giving and receiving resources is predicted on the expectation of equitable resources being provided directly in return (Homans, 1958; Blau, 1964). Thus, Blau (1964) defined exchange as unilateral acts of giving that either reciprocate previously rendered favors or are given with expectations of reciprocation. As Gouldner (1960) has pointed out that the need to exchange for the benefits received serves as a starting mechanism of social interaction. When people are thrown together, and before common norms or goals or role expectations have crystallized among them, the advantages to be gained from entering into exchange relations furnish incentives for social interaction, and the exchange processes serve as mechanisms for regulating social interaction, thus fostering the development of a network of social relations and a rudimentary group structure. Therefore in exchange relationships, trust and commitment are the key component to constructs and promote a long-term relationship (Gouldner, 1960; Ganesan, 1994; Sanzo, Santos, Vazquez, Alvarez, 2003). It is well accepted that the trust and commitment are desired dominant sentiments in any exchange relationship. According to the Sanzo, Santos, Vazquez, Alvarez (2003) found that the trust and commitment have a great influence in the exchange relationship directly. These two components serve as a variable to moderate in the exchange relationship. In other words, in order to build an exchange relationship, trust and commitment is the component must take into consideration. 2.2.1 Components in Exchange Relationship a) Trust Most of the researches consider trust as an antecedent of successful exchange relationship (Stanko, 2007; Cater Zabkar, 2008). Trust has long been considered fundamental to exchange relationships (Deutsch, 1962; Blau, 1964). It is one of the most important elements in exchange relationship (Gundlach, Gregory, Achrol, John, Ravi Mentzer, 1995; Geyskens, Inge, Steenkamp, Nirmalya, Jan-Benedict, Kumar, 1999). It is defined as the willingness to rely on an exchange partner with whom one has confidence (Moorman, Christine, Deshpande, Rohit, Gerald Zaltman, 1993; Morgan Hunt, 1994). The existence of trust is a central component in exchange relationship when one party has confidence in an exchange partner’s reliability and integrity (Morgan Hunt, 1994). Hon and Grunig (1999) define trust as one party’s level of confidence in and willingness to open oneself to the other party. An exchange relationship evolves in a slow process, starting with minor transactions in which little trust is required because little risk is involved (Blau, 1964). For instance, Hansen and Riggle (2009) had indicated that the relationship between ethical sales behavior and buyer commitment to the salesperson is completely mediated by buyer trust in the salesperson. Partnering relationships with other individual depend on exchange processes that are characterized by high levels of trust between the parties involved in an exchange (Morgan Hunt, 1994). An exchange relationship requires trusting others to discharge their obligations. If partners in exchange relationship trust each other more, they are more emotionally involved and less consciously weighing the benefits against the costs of that relationship (Wetzls, 1998). In other words, the receiver in an exchange relationship will tend to neglect their obligation to make a reciprocate toward the giver because of the trust build in the exchange relationship make the both partners less concern about the benefits gain compare to the cost invest in the relationship. b) Commitment Commitment in exchange is defined as the belief of an exchange partner that an ongoing relationship with each other is important to warrant maximum efforts aimed at maintaining it, including short-term sacrifices (Kumar, Nirmalya, Scheer, Lisa, Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict, 1994; Morgan Hunt, 1994; Geyskens, Inge, Steenkamp, Nirmalya, Jan-Benedict, Kumar, 1999). Research suggests that commitment is at the core of all exchange relationships and it is an essential ingredient in successful long-term exchange relationships (Anderson Narus, 1998). This means that commitment is a good indicator of long-term exchange relationship. This is because commitment includes an attitudinal component signifying an enduring intention by the parties to develop and maintain a stable long-term relationship (Anderson, Barton, Erin Weitz, 1992). Hon and Grunig (1999) reflect commitment as the extent to which the exchange parties feels that the relationship is worth spending time and energy to maintain. As indicated by Moorman, Zaltman, and Deshpande (1993), commitment defined as an enduring desire to maintain a valued relationship. 2.2.2 Interdependence in Exchange Relationship Interdependence plays pivotal roles in the exchange relationship. A shared concept among all exchange relationship derived by researcher is interdependence between people (Thibaut Kelly 1959; Homan, 1961; Blau, 1998). An individual’s behavior in exchange relationship is dependent on the other’s behavior in order to drive the interaction. According to the Blau (1998) states that interdependence is not in itself sufficient enough for exchange relationship to exist between two people. Blau (1998) suggests that there is another criterion to meet the existence of exchange relationship which is interaction with another specific individual which whom one is interdependent. Interdependences occur when someone has performed a favor to an individual is required to reciprocate that favor by that particular individual. If that person fails to reciprocate then they are seen as ungrateful and interdependence is not obtained. However, if the favor is reciprocated then it induces the other to reciprocate in kind and encourages both parties to continue such exchange. Each individual’s behavior in this exchange is dependent on the other’s behavior in order to drive the interaction. If one was to fail to reciprocate, the exchange would then halt and interdependence would no longer exist. 2.3 Importance of Exchange Relationship in Individual Behaviors Exchange relationship is an important and normal phenomenon that happening everywhere and everyday in human life. Most of the studies have examined that either how givers respond to favor they have performed (Cialdini, 1993; Latane Darley, 1970) and how a receivers respond to that favors have been done for them (Gergen, Ellsworth, Maslach Seipel, 1975; Nadler, 1991). The exchange relationship is purportedly maintained by invoking the norm of reciprocity which is stipulates that people should help those who have helped them (Gouldner, 1960). The norm of reciprocity act as a social rule that maintains, among other thing, that people should return favors and other acts of kindness (Gouldner, 1960). Blau (1964) establish the notion that individuals prefer to maintain balance in their exchanges. For individuals to enter into mutually beneficial exchange relationships, they have able to commit to fulfill their contractual obligations. A lender will not lend without being assured that the borrower will not invest the money in a hopeless venture or take the money and run. Particularly, neither givers nor receivers prefer to engage in favors exchange in ways that strengthen their relationship with one another (Flynn Brockner, 2003). This means that they will do not want to engage in favor exchange in ways that harm their relationship. A proper structure of our relationships in a manner will enables us to benefit from exchange. For instance, an individual would enter into exchange relationship unless assured that the exchange can indeed make him better off and that the other party would act in manner that will make him better off. 2.4 Exchange Relationship in Organization The relationship between employees and their organizations has often been described as an exchange relationship (Mowday, Porter, Steers, 1982; Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison Sowa, 1986; Rousseau, 1989). Member of organizations often request favors to perform tasks or obtain resources they might not be able to perform or obtain alone (Blau, 1964). Exchange relationship between the leaders and subordinates develop from the interactions between these parties and motivated by the mutual benefits derived from the exchange (Blau, 1964; Brown Trevino, 2006). An effective exchanges relationship must be created between the parties in order to increase their dependence upon each other for long term survival. Leader and subordinates have closer relationships, the latter will tend to receive better performance evaluations and more promotion opportunities. In addition, mutual trust, respect and care are more likely to happen between subordinates and their employers (Graen, Novak, Sommerka mp, 1982). In return, the subordinates will show more loyalty and respect toward their leader. Organizational commitments have emphasized the importance of employee perceptions of the exchange relationship with the organization. Many scholar like Major, Kozlomski, Chao and Gardner (1995) and Lee (2001) indicate that the high quality of the leader-member exchange relationship such as employees empowerment, attracting reward and compensation is positively correlated with the organizational commitment and negatively correlated with turnover. This is because they tend to be satisfied with the organization. A large number of studies have shown that employees who feel that they have been empowered are likely to remain more committed to their organizations (Allen Meyer, 1990; Liden, Wayne Sparrowe, 2000). Empowered employees will consider themselves more capable of influencing their work and organization in a more meaningful way and more willing to stay in the organization. This is where the exchange relationship exists when a employees had empowered by their managers will willing to remain and work for the organization as a return. There are two important frameworks for exchange relationship in organization which are psychological contracts and perceived organizational support. Psychological contract is means that an individual’s belief regarding the terms and conditions of an exchange relationship with another party in organization (Rousseau, 1989). Perceived organizational support captures an individual’s perception concerning the degree to which an organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison Sowa, 1986). These two frameworks are similar in that they are both grounded in exchange relationship as the explanatory mechanism for their consequences on employees’ attitude and behavior. The psychological contract and perceived organizational support are also both positioned as key means by which an employee globally evaluates the employment relationship with the organization. Perceived organizational support is one-sided in that it focuses on the employer’s side of the exchange as perceived by employees. Psychological contract includes an employee and employer perspective which is the contingent relationship between an employee’s perception of the reciprocal obligation between that individual and the employer (Jacqueline, Shapiro Conway, 2005). 2.5 Relationship Between Exchange Relationship And Ethics Exchange relationship and ethics are two concepts that correlated. These two concepts are explained in theory which is able to enhance the understanding of the concept. Exchange relationship is a dyadic interaction between two parties by giving and receiving resources while ethics are the basic concepts of human conduct. An ethical action can build a long-term exchange relationship. According to Hansen (2011) says that someone who had perceived as an ethical people will more likely to gain a trust from others and develop an exchange relationship easily with them. As mentioned above, trust is one of the elements in building an exchange relationship. In other words, behave ethically can gain trust easily from others party. Exchange relationship can be developed through the trust between two parties (Brower, Schoorman Tan, 2000). Besides that, commitment tends to be higher between the parties who involved in exchange relationship due to ethical behavior. This is because they perceived ethical behavior can make them constantly engage in particular relationship. By referring to Gouldner (1960) norm of reciprocity which act as a social rule that maintains, among other things, that people should return favors and other acts in kindness. This means that peoples should treat others as how they want to be treated. If an individual act ethically will tend to influence people around them to act ethically. This is a learning process take place where people learn to behave ethically during interaction in exchange relationship. Therefore, people will learn to behave ethically to affect others to act ethically so that they can be gain the ethical treatment from the others as well. According to the Brown and Trevino (2006), ethical individuals are a role model for the others to follow because they tend to seek to do the right thing and conduct their personal lives in an ethical manner. For instance, an ethical leaders in organization are in the habit of seeking out â€Å"what is right† (Brown Trevino, 2006). This means that they are tend to make a fair and balanced decision from a means rather than just an ends perspective (Brown Trevino, 2006). Most studies consider how the managers’ ethical attitudes and behaviors influence those of their direct subordinates and how the subordinate respond toward it (Porter, Allen Angle, 1983; Ginzel, Kramer Sutton, 1993; Pfeffer, 1997). Leaders who are perceived as ethical will positively influence employee work behavior (Mayer, Kuenzi, Greenbaum, Bardes, Salvador, 2009). In other words, a manager who acts ethically can make a great influence toward employee’s behavior in exchange relationship. By referring to the relational leadership theory (Brower, Schoorman Tan, 2000) stated that an ethical leader are likely to develop the exchange relationships between the leader and subordinate because ethical leaders exemplify the essential of trustworthiness in the eyes of their subordinate. In an organization, the subordinates who perceive their leader to be an ethical people will be more likely to perceive this leader as a trustworthy leader and intend to continue in the exchange relationship development process with that leader (Hansen, 2011). In other words, an ethical leader who are honest, seek to do the right thing and holding high moral standards will lead their subordinate to perceive them as a trustworthy leader. This perception of trustworthiness on the ethical leader will act as a catalyst to the development of the exchange relationship between the leader and subordinate (Brower, Schoorman Tan, 2000). Exchange relationships between ethical leaders and their subordinates develop from interactions between these parties and are motivated by the mutual benefits derived from the exchanges (Blau, 1964; Brown Trevino, 2006). Ethical leaders are more likely to develop a strong exchange relationship with their subordinate because they are trusted by their subordinates. Scholars have been suggested that exchange relationships are related to discussions of ethical leadership (Brown, Trevino Harrison, 2005; Brown Trevino, 2006). Exchange relationships require a significant amount of trust the part of exchanging parties. In other words, keeping the definition of ethical leadership in mind that characterizes ethical leaders as being ‘trusted’ by their subordinates, it is quite likely that a subordinate who perceives his or her leader to be an ethical leader will also perceive this leader to be trustworthy. 3.0 Conclusion Exchange relationship is important in human interaction. Exchange relationship is a dyadic interaction between the individual in order to gain something from other and reciprocate something as return. Norm of reciprocity serves as a guideline for individual to deal in the exchange relationship. In exchange relationship, Batson (1993) claims that an individual assume that benefits are given with the expectation of receiving a benefit in return while the receipt of benefits incur in a debt or obligation to return a comparable benefits. The benefits that issue must be intentionally given and may include anything of use or value, tangible or intangible; they need not involve money or things for which monetary value can be calculated (Clark Mills, 1979). Ethic is study of moral principle while it helps in govern our decision making and moral choices (Ianinska Zamor, 2006). Human actions always judge by others in term of ethical or unethical. Without ethic act as guide for human, human a ction will tend to be aimless. From the study, exchange relationship is required the involvement of trust and commitment elements. These two elements is important in generate a successful exchange relationship. Trust and commitment is the key component in promoting a long-term exchange relationship (Gouldner, 1960; Sanzo, Santos, Vazquez, Alvarez, 2003). These two elements serve as a starting point for an exchange relationship to be generated. Before an exchange relationship build, the two party must have a certain degree level of trust between them. Without a minimum level of trust, it is hard to deal in exchange relationship. This is because exchange involves a certain level of risk need to be taken (Blau, 1964). Besides that, interdependent is also play an important role in exchange relationship. Interdependent will occur when each of the party who delivered some favors to another party is required a return for that favour from the recipient. Therefore, the exchange relationship only can be exits through interd ependent individuals. For the individual behaviour, exchange relationship will not run away from their interaction. It is focus on how the parties perform and respond to the favour in exchange relationship (Cialdini, 1993; Latane Darley, 1970; Gergen, Ellsworth, Maslach, Seipel, 1975; Nadler, 1991). A mutually benefits is expected by both of the party in exchange relationship. Therefore, individual will expect toward the benefits to be gained when making an exchange with particular individual. Exchange relationship is vital for organization as well. As the most scholar had study the exchange relationship between the employees and organization widely (Mowday, Porter, Steers, 1982; Rousseau, 1989; Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison Sowa, 1986). In deep, the leader and employees move in a same direction because of willingness to exchange their value each others. For instance, the manager empowered their employee and the employees feel satisfy then they tend to perform well and commit in their duty as well as the organization (Allen Meyer, 1990; Liden, Wayne, Sparrowe, 2000). At the end, the organization is the greater beneficial receiver. Next, study on relationship between exchange relationship and ethics is the main discussion part. The researches have widely examine this topic by reflect it in the organization (Brown Trevino, 2006; Porter, Allen Angle, 1983; Ginzel, Kramer Sutton, 1993; Pfeffer, 1997). It is explain that how a person to behave ethically in exchange relationship. Normally, a person will get influence by the ethical individual in exchange relationship. For instance, Mayer, Kuenzi, Greenbaum, Bardes and Salvador (2009) claim that the ethical leader can influence their subordinate behavior in the organization. Employees will perceive the ethical leader as their role model. These means that employees will tend to be trust on their leader due to the moral principle hold by their leader. In other words, leader established a positive behaviour toward their subordinate, the subordinate will tend to act the same way in manner. In exchange, employees to be more commitment toward their leader as well as org anization due to the ethical leader had gain a trust from their employees. Last but not least, two relevant theories had been established to explain the concept of exchange relationship and ethics. Social exchange theory and leader member exchange theory had been used to provide a clear understand of the topic. Social exchange theory is the human fundamental activity aid to clarify about social behaviour through the exchange relationship. This theory explain that in exchange relationship, an individual should reciprocate on the favour that given by the giver on a pro quo basis (Brown Mitchell, 2010; Blau, 1964). In general, social exchange theory had involved three main types of exchange which are negotiated exchange, reciprocal exchange, and generalized exchange. Each of the type served in different situation in term of risk involvement. Another theory that been used is leader member theory. This theory helps in explain how the exchange relationships occur among the employer and employees. From this theory, the exchange relationship among the leader and employee is related to the quality of the relationship. Throughout this relationship, leader and subordinate will generate a trust among them to establish the exchange relationship. A high quality of relationship involves showing mutual respect, concern and sharing of decision control (Dienesch Liden, 1986; Liden Maslyn, 1993). Therefore, exchange for benefits can be developed easily between the leader and subordinate.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Therapeutic Intervention And Women Experiencing Domestic Violence Social Work Essay

Therapeutic Intervention And Women Experiencing Domestic Violence Social Work Essay There have been on-going public and professional concerns about the issue of domestic violence in the world. This interest has resulted in a growing body of research evidence which examine the prevalence and correlates of this type of violence (Archer, 2002; Fagan Browne, 1994; Johnson Ferraro, 2000). The most common form of violence against women is domestic violence, or the violence against women in families. Research consistently demonstrates that a woman is more likely to be injured, raped or killed by a current or former partner than by any other persons. Men may kick, bite, slap, punch or try to strangle their wives or partners; they may burn them or throw acid on their faces; they may beat or rape them, with either their body parts or sharp objects and they may use deadly weapons to stab or shoot them. At times, women are seriously injured, and in some cases they are killed or die, as a result of their injuries (United Nations Economic and Social Council, 1996). The assaults are intended to injure womens psychological health and bodies, which usually include humiliation and physical violence. Just like torture, the assaults are unpredictable and bear little relation to womens own behaviour. Moreover, the assaults may continue for weeks, and even years. Some women may believe that they deserve the beatings because of some wrong actions on their parts, while others refrain from speaking about the abuse because they fear that their partner will further harm them in reprisal for revealing the family secrets or they may simply be ashamed of their situation (United Nations Economic and Social Council, Report of the Special Reporters on violence against women, E/CN.4/1996/53, February 1996). Physical and sexual violence against women is an enormous problem throughout the world. The perpetrators are typically males close to women, such as their intimate partners and family members. Violence puts women at risk for both short- and long-term sequel which involves their physical, psychological, and social well-being. The prevalence of violence involving women is alarming and it constitutes a serious health problem. No woman is safe from domestic violence, no matter what country or culture she lives in. According to the latest UN report, one in three women is raped, beaten, or abused during her lifetime. The occasion of todays world Eliminate Violence against Womens Day focuses on Iran, where abuse largely goes unreported and officially at least unrecognized. Some researchers have argued that violence is equally a problem for both sexes (Gelles, 1974; Straus, Gelles and Steinmetz, 1980; both cited in Dwyer, 1996). However, as Bograd (1988) points out, this argument ignores the disproportionate rate of male violence against women and that most documented female violence is committed in self-defence. Moreover, it also ignores the structural supports for male violence against women. There is abundant evidence which suggests that violence, against women by their husbands or partners, is a historical and current norm (i.e. Dobash and Dobash, 1988; Geller, 1992; Gordon, 1998). Some of the criticisms of cognitive behavioural therapies are that they tend to ignore social and political factors which affect clients (Enns, 1997). People who are homeless, battered, or poor may not have the financial resources or social support to use some cognitive and behavioural methods. Cognitive-behaviour therapy views that behaviour is primarily determined by what that person thinks. Cognitive-behaviour therapy works on the premise that thoughts of low self-worth are incorrect and due to faulty learning. In addition, the aim of therapy is to get rid of the faulty concepts which influence negative thinking. Furthermore, cognitive behavioural therapies may not attend to clients cultural assumptions about rationality which are rather implicit in such therapies. To make cognitive and behavioural therapies more compatible with the feminist therapy, Worell and Remer (2003) suggested changing labels that stress the pathology of people, focusing on feeling, and integrating ideas about gender-role socialization, rather than using negative or pathological labels such as distortion, irrationality, or faulty thinking. Worell and Remer (2003) suggest that clients explore ideas, based on the gender-role generalizations which appear to be distorted or irrational. For example, rather than labelling the thought that womens place is in the home as irrational, the therapist should explore the actual rewards and punishments for living out this stereotyped belief. By focusing on anger, particularly angry ones which arise as a result of gender-role limitations or discrimination, women can be helped to feel independent and gain control over their lives. Therefore, helping women with their social-role issues, gender-role and power analysis can be helpful in exp loring ways of dealing with societal pressures which interfere with womens development. This is supported by Wyche (2001) who believes that cognitive and behaviour therapies are particularly relevant for women of colour because they focus on the present, providing clients with methods to use in handling the current problems. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Violence by intimate partners has been recognized throughout the world as a significant health problem. For instance, the World Health Organization (WHO) focuses on violence against women as a priority health issue. Violence by intimate partners refers to any behaviour within an intimate partnership which causes physical, psychological, or sexual harm to those in the relationship. Violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women (Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, 1993). According to this Declaration fear is the biggest outcome of violence against women. Fear from violence is a big obstacle of womens independence and results in women to continue seeking the mens support, and in many instances this support results in the vulnerability and dependency of women, and is the main obstacle in the empowerment of womens potentials, which can bring about the development of their capacities and to use their energy in the improvement of society. Violence and abuse across the world are a common phenomenon and are not specific to a particular society, culture or mentality. Women in any given country and society are in one way or another subjected to violence in the private (home) environment or public (social) environment. In view of the irreversible consequences of violence for both the human, social and family structure of society, and for women themselves. This issue must become extra sensitive in the world. In fact, gender-based violence against women is the violation of their human rights and fundamental freedoms, the denial of their spiritual and physical integrity and an insult to their dignity. Violence against women is an obstacle of access to equal objectives, development and peace. The term violence against women is associated to any violent act that is gender-based that results in physical, mental and sexual hurt and suffering. The main reason for the separation of men and women is mental abuse. Mental abuse is an abusive behaviour which hurts and damages the womans honour, dignity and self-confidence. This type of abuse results the loss of perception, loss of self-confidence, various types of depression, womans failure in managing the family, greed at the work environment, the reconstruction of violent behaviour in children, womans dysfunction in the family, turning to sedatives, alcohol, drugs, fortune-telling (Mehrangiz Kar 2000). Violence against women in Iran takes place in a number of ways: 1 Honour killing; 2 Self-immolation; 3 Domestic violence; 4 Prostitution; 5 Human trafficking, women and children in particular. Violence reduces the self-confidence of women in the family. Women, who are abused, usually become depressed, secluded, and withdrawn people. Depression is also one of the most fundamental psychological problems in women who are in domestic violence. (Enayat, Halimeh,2006). Standards for counselling practice was developed in response to reports from women who were dissatisfied with the counselling they received after experiencing domestic violence, and concerns raised by workers in womens domestic violence services (Inner South Domestic Violence Service in Melbourne). According to the Welfare Organization of Iran (2006), the rate of mental illness among women victimized by domestic violence is significantly higher than among other women having hospital contact. It was noted that while an established network existed for domestic violence crisis and support services were designed specifically to meet the needs of women, counselling services tended to be generalized, with only a few practitioners specializing in the area. Furthermore, there has been no study to show counsellors which treatment for the mental health treatment of women who experienced domestic violence is better than the others (WBO, 2006). Family laws in Iran, create inequality between men and women, and these laws do not have the capacity to protect women who live with violent men, and violence has turned into a power tool for men. As the country progresses into an industrial nation, more academically qualified professionals are in great demand in Iran. Women who have experienced domestic violence are subjected to considerable amount of problems concerning mental health related to domestic violence. In a study by A. A. Noorbala, conducted at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, the prevalence of mental disorders was shown to be 21.3% in the rural areas, and this was 20.9% in the urban areas. According to an old Iranian saying, Women should sacrifice themselves and tolerate. This shows that many women, if not most women, are involved in domestic violence. It happens in private life and a legal complaint can destroy the life of a woman. In other words, parts of the population have the perception that abuse is done in order to keep with the traditions of the society and out of love. Women, who are victims of domestic violence, perceived that their husbands jealous reactions which turn into violence are a sign of their love and attention to them. In a very traditional and religious setting in which many [in Iran] live, their understanding of religion and the interpretation given to them throughout the centuries is that a man can beat his wife. They believe that it is a religious command and the commentators, who have portrayed Islam in this light as a violent religion, have also contributed to the growth of this kind of culture. The police and judicial system are of little help. If a battered woman calls the police, it is unlikely that they will intervene. Ironically, the traditional attitude towards marital conflict in Iran inclines people to mediate between the couple. In many cases, the woman is usually sent back to her violent home. In the Iranian judicial system, there has been no law established to prevent domestic violence. On the contrary, there are many indicators which encourage violence against women in families in the Iranian Islamic penal code. Some authors estimate that the number of intimate relationships with violent husbands is about 20 to 30 percent (Stark Flitcraft, 1988; Straus Gelles, 1986). Broken bones, miscarriages, broken families, death, and some mental health disorders are some of the consequences of battering in intimate relationships. Each year, over one million women seek medical care due to battering (Nadelson Sauzier, 1989). Victims also experience nightmares and somatic consequences, while children who witness abuse may be symptomatic, displaying a high number of somatic, psychological and behavioural problems (Nadelson Sauzier, 1989). In addition to psychological scarring for victims, children, and batterers, there are broader societal repercussions of domestic violence. Williams-White (1989) state that the structural, cultural, and social characteristics of our society continue to perpetuate the victimization of women at all levels. In a way, violence within familial relationships reflects and helps maintain violence and oppression it widely in culture. Jennings (1 987:195) explains this by stating that violent husbands not only contribute to maintaining the level of violence in society, they also reflect a direct manifestation of socially learned sex-role behaviours. Moreover, the prevalence of battering has crossed race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (Hotaling Sugarman, 1986). Maltreatment of violence can lead to more violence (Walker, 1984). In systems which do not change, future generations may continue to resort to violence to solve problems. In addition, in many of those systems, violence may become more severe with time. For this reason, it is therefore necessary to work on treating the consequences of violence. However, to date, funding for mental health interventions is still limited, and it often only supports short-term treatment which will not adequately address the long-term symptoms. In view of the special treatment for the mental health of women, counseling centres and support houses for women can reduce the mental health problem of abused women and also reduce the domestic violence statistics. At the Welfare Organizations Counselling Centres in Iran, women who are victimized by domestic violence are treated by social workers and counsellors utilizing the cognitive behaviour therapy. Based on the above discussion, this study also analyzed the comparison of the treatments given to women who have experienced domestic violence, using four different therapies, namely combination therapy (cognitive behaviour therapy and feminist therapy) with cognitive behaviour therapy, feminist therapy and social work skills. Violence can shatter a womans life in many ways. Being a victim of violence is widely recognized as a cause for mental health problems, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and panic attacks. Being abused also plays a major role in developing or worsening substance abuse problems. For many women who are affected by violence, their first abuse usually occurred in their childhood or adolescence. Victimized women as childrens mothers frequently end up losing custody of their own children due to allegations of abuse or neglect, and over 50% of child abuse and neglect cases involve parental alcohol and drug abuse. In addition to institutionalized violence against women in Iran, the majority of the women and young girls are facing domestic violence at home at the time when they are still living with their parents. In most cases, it is the father and the other elder male members in the family are among those who first commit the aggression against the women and young girls. According to the latest statistics, two out of every three Iranian women have experienced discrimination and domestic violence from the father or the other male members of their family. For the vast majority of the Iranian women, married life marks the beginning of horror, pain, and humiliation, i.e. being the victim of their husbands and sometimes the other family members. Moreover, eighty one out of 100 married women have experienced domestic violence in the first year of their marriage (Mehrangiz Kar 2000). Even women with outstanding jobs and prestigious social standings are subject to this violation. In most of the cases , this abuse leaves permanent physical and psychological damages for the rest of their lives. Ironically, without saying even a word and with much pain and yet no support, crimes against women have gone unnoticed. Ninety out of 100 women suffer from a severe case of depression, from which they ultimately commit suicide and 71% of those women experience nervous breakdowns. (Mehrangiz Kar 2000). Their methods of suicide include setting themselves ablaze. For them, this is the only way of escaping from segregation and humiliation. For instance in Ilam (a city in Iran), 15 girls set themselves ablaze each month, fighting against oppression or depression (Welfare Organization of Iran, 2005). Looking at how serious this problem has become, it is therefore the responsibility of everyone to fight the oppression against women. Female victims need to believe that they should not be blamed on whatever happens to them. An active participation in the Welfare Organization of Iran to defend the wo mens rights and opposition to the Iranian Islamic fundamentalism is the least one can do to help end the pain and suffering of the victims of violence in both private and public spheres. Violence against women, in human and brutal punishments, such as stoning and complete elimination of the women from the political and social arenas represent some aspects of the modus operandi of fundamentalists leading to institutionalized violence. This also means that the struggle for equality, safety and security cannot be separated from the fight against fundamentalism in Iran. This study made use of the theoretical framework, combining the cognitive-behaviour theory and feminist theory for the mental health of the women who have been victimized by domestic violence. The present study could provide knowledge on the different types of mental health treatments adopted by counsellors at various counselling centres throughout the country. This research also examined the quality of the treatment by combining two therapies (cognitive-behaviour therapy and feminist therapy). Armed with this knowledge, the leaders of the Welfare Organizations, the society, families and counsellors can benefit from the consequences of change in the womens mental health. The suggested theoretical framework would provide a better understanding of the womens mental health and their performance in the society. In summery, battered and abused women need a wide range of responses, flexible services, and supportive policies to enhance their safety and self-sufficiency and to restore their self-esteem and welfare. These might include mental and physical health evaluation and referral; relocation services; confidential advocacy, shelter, and other domestic violence support services; educational and vocational training; legal representation concerning divorce, custody and protective orders; evaluation of immigration status and ethnic or cultural issues; and the effective enforcement of criminal laws and court orders to help free them from their partners control and to keep them and their children safe. We know that women who have suffered abuse are more likely to suffer posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and somatization than those who have never experienced abuse; the more extensive the abuse, the greater the risk of mental health disorder. Womens mental health treatment is an important area to consider for research because (1) girls and women as a group are exposed to more traumatic stressors than boys and men; (2) the mental health of women may be severely affected, resulting not only in immediate psychological symptoms, but also lifetime risk for self-destructive or suicidal behaviour, anxiety and panic attacks, eating disorders, substance abuse, somatization disorder, and sexual adjustment disorders; and (3) psychologists are not regularly trained to work specifically with trauma survivors, which can reduce the effectiveness of the treatment survivors receive. Currently there are 22 crisis intervention centres (womens crisis intervention centre) across the country (Iran), and women can stay in these centres between 6 to 8 months. As violence causes psychological pressures and uncontrolled stresses on and ultimately depression in women generally, this study was intended to find a better and useful treatment in the attempt to improve the treatment for the mental health of the women who have become the victims of domestic violence. The present study would also provide further knowledge and understanding on the three different types of the treatments used, namely the Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT), Feminist therapy and the combination of the two treatments. The results of this study would therefore contribute the theoretical development and practice in counselling. 1.6 Operational Definition of Terms 1.6.1 Domestic violence Domestic violence is a pattern of coercive behaviour, which includes physical, sexual, economic, emotional and/or psychological abuse, exerted by an intimate partner over another with the goal of establishing and maintaining power and control. 1.6.2 Mental health a state of mind characterized by emotional well-being, relative freedom from anxiety and disabling symptoms, and a capacity to establish constructive relationships and cope with the ordinary demands and stresses of life. Mental Health is the balance between all aspects of life social, physical, spiritual and emotional. It impacts on how we manage our surroundings and make choices in our lives clearly it is an integral part of our overall health. In this study, mental health refers to the score which the client gets from the SCL-90-R test. 1.6.3 Cognitive behaviour Therapy (CBT) A set of principles and procedures that assume that cognitive processes affect behaviour and conversely that behaviour affects cognitive processes. It emphasizes a here-and-now process without emphasizing causation. (D.Meichenbaum) .A treatment approach that helps clients examines and changes the relationship consequences, thoughts, feelings, behaviours and resultant consequences. It incorporates a number of diverse intervention (for example, cognitive restructuring procedures, problem solving, coping skills interventions, stress inoculation training, and self instructional training. 1.6.4 Feminist Therapy A philosophical and practical approach with certain assumptions; for example, strategies are needed, and therapists must be aware of personal, gender-biased value system in relation to appropriate behaviour. Feminist therapists promote se4lf-awareness, self-affirmation, and personal integration, outcomes that may conflict with the societal norms that were the original source of dysfunctional behaviour patterns of women.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The DJ Booth Essay examples -- essays research papers

The DJ Booth   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Even while standing inside a DJ booth can be loud and obnoxious, the excitement of playing music and controlling a huge crowd sends and unexplainable feeling through your body.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When I first step into a DJ booth at Club Centers, located in the heart of Rochester, New York, my nerves start going crazy and butterflies hit my stomach so fast it feels like I have to puke. Just the sight of three turntables and an eight-channel mixer in front of my face is like sending a little kid into a candy store. While standing in front of my tables, I look to my right and I see my soundboard. This high-tech, silver plated sound machine stands about seven feet tall with about three hundred switches and knobs that control high pitches, low pitches, medium pitches and all of the digital effects. This soundboard is used when I put a shiny new record on one of the turntables. This will distort the sound quality of the song. The music sounds like a fire alarm, starting with a deep sound then rising to a high pitch screaming noise.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As I look to my left, you see my beautiful blonde light girl working my light board. While the music is playing really loud, she will hit certain buttons that will make multi-colored lasers go in different directions and make many different shapes. Also, while the music is jammin...

Drawing Down The Moon Essay -- essays research papers

Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I chose to read the book Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today, by Margot Adler, because I myself am a practicing Wiccan.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I began following this religion the summer before I entered high school. I have read many books on my religion, and I thought that this one would compliment the knowledge that I have on the subject.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I was raised a Roman Catholic, but I never felt truly comfortable with the teachings of the Catholic church. It always seemed a little off to me and I never felt like I belonged there. After I received the Sacrament of Confirmation, my parents stopped enforcing that I attend mass every Sunday. It made the transition a lot easier for me. Although, they did not and still do not approve of my religion, they understand that Catholicism is not for me.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When people hear that I am a â€Å"witch,† they automatically assume that I am either crazy, or a â€Å"devil worshipper.† Books such as Alder’s Drawing Down the Moon, are the only way to allow other people to realize that there are many facets to the term â€Å"Pagan.† They also make people realize that not all Pagan religions revolve around curses, crystal balls and sacrifices.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Although, I did not agree with everything that Margot Adler had to say, or with some of the interviews she chose to include in Drawing Down the Moon, I am happy that I chose to read it for my final paper. I do not feel that we cover enough about Pagan religions in our class, and this assignment gave me the opportunity to learn more about Pagan religions other than my own. Brief Summary   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In America today, there are a myriad of â€Å"occult† or â€Å"magickal† groups. Some of these groups are small with maybe only 5 or 6 members, some have hundreds. The groups that I am referring to call themselves Pagans or Neo-Pagans. There are a wide variety of Pagans and Neo-Pagans. They can be animists, polytheists, pantheists, monotheists, or a combination of any of these. There are also many different classifications of Witches, such as: Gothic, Classical, Familial, Immigrant, Ethnic and Feminist. Each group is very distinct and different from the next. They do however share a common set of values.   Ã‚   ... ...h to be able to answer in the future, are:  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  What makes Pagan religions so unappealing to people when the basis of the religion relies solely on however the practitioner interprets it?  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Why isn’t there more information available on them considering these religions are so old?  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Why don’t these religions have any solid dogma?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I think that this assignment was a very good learning experience. It gave us the chance to explore any area of religion that we wanted to know about or learn more about. We weren’t restrained to the more common religions that we discuss in depth in class. I enjoyed the fact that we had a large amount of freedom when choosing our topic. It is not good to always be told what to write about. Freedom of topics is always beneficial for the most creative fulfillment of any assignment. It gives the student a chance to work on something that they are truly interested in. This assignment definitely allowed me to further my knowledge in the areas of religion that I am interested in, rather than solely what is in a syllabus.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Drawing Down The Moon Essay -- essays research papers Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I chose to read the book Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today, by Margot Adler, because I myself am a practicing Wiccan.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I began following this religion the summer before I entered high school. I have read many books on my religion, and I thought that this one would compliment the knowledge that I have on the subject.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I was raised a Roman Catholic, but I never felt truly comfortable with the teachings of the Catholic church. It always seemed a little off to me and I never felt like I belonged there. After I received the Sacrament of Confirmation, my parents stopped enforcing that I attend mass every Sunday. It made the transition a lot easier for me. Although, they did not and still do not approve of my religion, they understand that Catholicism is not for me.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When people hear that I am a â€Å"witch,† they automatically assume that I am either crazy, or a â€Å"devil worshipper.† Books such as Alder’s Drawing Down the Moon, are the only way to allow other people to realize that there are many facets to the term â€Å"Pagan.† They also make people realize that not all Pagan religions revolve around curses, crystal balls and sacrifices.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Although, I did not agree with everything that Margot Adler had to say, or with some of the interviews she chose to include in Drawing Down the Moon, I am happy that I chose to read it for my final paper. I do not feel that we cover enough about Pagan religions in our class, and this assignment gave me the opportunity to learn more about Pagan religions other than my own. Brief Summary   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In America today, there are a myriad of â€Å"occult† or â€Å"magickal† groups. Some of these groups are small with maybe only 5 or 6 members, some have hundreds. The groups that I am referring to call themselves Pagans or Neo-Pagans. There are a wide variety of Pagans and Neo-Pagans. They can be animists, polytheists, pantheists, monotheists, or a combination of any of these. There are also many different classifications of Witches, such as: Gothic, Classical, Familial, Immigrant, Ethnic and Feminist. Each group is very distinct and different from the next. They do however share a common set of values.   Ã‚   ... ...h to be able to answer in the future, are:  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  What makes Pagan religions so unappealing to people when the basis of the religion relies solely on however the practitioner interprets it?  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Why isn’t there more information available on them considering these religions are so old?  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Why don’t these religions have any solid dogma?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I think that this assignment was a very good learning experience. It gave us the chance to explore any area of religion that we wanted to know about or learn more about. We weren’t restrained to the more common religions that we discuss in depth in class. I enjoyed the fact that we had a large amount of freedom when choosing our topic. It is not good to always be told what to write about. Freedom of topics is always beneficial for the most creative fulfillment of any assignment. It gives the student a chance to work on something that they are truly interested in. This assignment definitely allowed me to further my knowledge in the areas of religion that I am interested in, rather than solely what is in a syllabus.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚