Tuesday, December 24, 2019
My Experiences After Attending The Practice Of Public...
Reflective Assignment This paper discusses my experiences after attending the Practice of Public Health Leadership (PPHL) subject in 2015, reflecting on important lessons learnt, the relevance to my work and the support required for my improvement. When I enrolled in this PPHL, I was not sure that I will get the best out of the subject due to previous experiences of attending theoretical leadership trainings. However, at the end of the subject, I was challenged, groomed, humbled and inspired as a leader. The subject has helped more to bring a lot out of myself, stimulated the urge for personal authenticity and an appreciation of the power of vulnerability in leadership. Through personal interactions with other students and presenters as well as the group activities, I have realised that the success of the team depends on recognising each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and complementing on the weaknesses. In addition, I have learnt that effective leadership depends on team work, incorporating people with different skills and abilities. I have learnt the importance of personal reflection and meditation in leadership. Furthermore, taking time to know myself or who I am, has been one of the great lessons from this subject. It has enabled me to focus on the roles of a leader instead of striving to do everything myself as the case before. In addition, learning the skills of gaining the trust of the people you are leading as well as inspiring them was a remarkable lesson. Reflecting on myShow MoreRelatedMy Experience At The Public Health Leadership984 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReflection This paper discusses my experiences after attending the Public Health Leadership subject in 2015, reflecting on important lessons learnt, the relevance to my work and the support required for my improvement. When I enrolled in this subject, I was not sure that I will get the best out of the subject considering my experiences with many leadership courses where the presenters have focused on theories of leadership skills without giving practical insights. However, at the end of this subjectRead MoreMy Experience At 25 Middle School1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2011 Williston middle school offered me a Tennis Coach position which I readily accepted. This opportunity opened my eyes to the world of education and the families who function within in it. Teaching tennis to 25 middle school girls was no menial task. A small minority had tennis experience while the majority of players were simply looking for something to occupy their time after school. Also, there were huge socioeconomic disparities among the children and it was fascinating to watch how theRead MoreJohn B. Watson : An American Behavioral Psychologist1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJohn B. Watson, an American behavioral psychologist, f amously wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and IÃ¢â¬â¢ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might selectÃ¢â¬âdoctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestorsÃ¢â¬ (1930, p. 104). It is an extreme point of view in the natureRead MoreBehavioral Science And Community Health961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFor Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health Around 6 years of age, I was outside playing with other children when I noticed a group of people building something in an area. Everyone gathered around to observe them and saw water coming out of a pump. 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While in my undergraduate years studying to become a physician, I noticed how doctors were trained in intervention medicine, but not many practiced preventive medicine. I decided that I wanted to enact positive impact by improving population health through researching and understanding the epidemiology of infectious diseases, seeking viable possibilities to eliminate health conditions and partnering with stakeholder s to drive public policies and economic growth in developingRead MoreHow The Flexpath Program Aligns With Your Career Goals891 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaligns with your career goals. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The FlexPath program aligns with my career goals of growth in the hotel sales department of MGM Resorts International. As an assistant of the following three individuals that hold these positions as Manager Executive Meeting Sales, Senior Manager National Meeting Sales and Manager Sales Systems/Reporting it is an essential part for me to have the same mind set as my managers to fulfill all required tasks. My goal is to become one of the Manager Executive Meeting SalesRead MorePublic Health Leadership And Management1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPublic Health Leadership and Management 2015 Critical Reflection The Public Health Leadership and Management (PHLM) was an interesting as well as a challenging subject. Learning the principles and practices of PHLM gave me much insight to reflect on myself and my institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Formerly, I worked as a civil servant at the Local Government of Jakarta, Indonesian, whereas my responsibilities are planning and budgeting for health promotion program in my work unit. Working as a planner makeRead MoreMy Role Model Of My Life Essay1589 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesor express my interests. As time has passed the question still remains, yet I am much closer to my answer. With help from the career research assignment, presented during my GEL class, I have been able to research this very question. Before this assignment I pondered countless ideas of what my future profession would be like, but I never went into detail; and never investigated how it would effect my overall quality of life. My future can only be shaped by what I choose to be. I wan t my life to beRead MoreThe Reflection And Self Analysis Essay1566 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespreparing for the shadowing clinical experience I have read and reviewed from Garcia, Schager Schoon (2014) chapter one, chapter two, chapter three, chapter six, chapter seven, and chapter thirteen. I also previously attended an orientation to Washington County Public Health on September 19, 2016. Also, I have read material for Washington County Public Health policies. After this material was completed I was assigned to a local public health nurse that was close to my community to shadow. I contacted
Monday, December 16, 2019
The Impact of Industrialisation and Technology on Environment Free Essays
With the rapid development of economy, people who live in contemporary society certainly own a different life in terms of contrasting their parents. There is a wide and profound change, especially in the progressive technology, which lead to the world becomes increasingly industrialization. The ever-accelerated developing of science and technology have changed citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ lifestyle and the way they get along with others. We will write a custom essay sample on The Impact of Industrialisation and Technology on Environment or any similar topic only for you Order Now Nevertheless, from another perspective, there are considerable environmental problems arising. One of such problems is water pollution, along with the reasons which result in this difficulty and its solutions will be explained and evaluated as well. There is a quite clearly saying that water is the most important source of life and each individual needs it everyday. It is undoubtedly that water exists on the planet as the most precious natural resource since over 70% of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface is made up of it. People use water for many different ways, for instance, drinking, bathing, irrigating crops and so on. Everyone cannot survive without the seemingly invaluable water which is made of hydrogen and oxygen: water is essential for everything on the planet to grow and prosper. Even though the human beings recognize this fact, they still neglect it by polluting rivers, lakes, and oceans. Ã¢â¬ËFor a world that is 70% water, things are drying up fast. Only 2. 5% of water is fresh, and only a fraction of that is accessibleÃ¢â¬â¢ (Kluger Dorfman, 2002, p. 6). To the great disappointment, water resources have been seriously polluted. It is reported that it is hard to find pure and clean water on the Earth now. People are gradually but surely damaging the planet where organisms are dying at a very alarming rate. Some researches have been done to reflect the serious problem, which informed each person that half of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population is facing water pollution. There are approximately 250 million people got sick because of water pollution, and 5 to 10 million died among them. According to the survey results, Ã¢â¬Ëin the US 40% rivers and 46% lakes are too pollutedÃ¢â¬â¢ (2012), Water pollution, last accessed 29 June 2012. 1. trillion gallons of dirty effluent and waste rubbish are poured into rivers and lakes of US each year. Among the numerous polluted rivers, the situation of Asian rivers is the most terrible in the world. Several major rivers of China were tested in the year of 2004, and the result of test reflected that half of them were not suitable for people to drink. The rivers and lakes of Eur ope were tested as well between the year 2004 and 2005, and the situation is also awful that 10% of them were too polluted to be used. In addition, water pollution will not only do harm to people but also to aquatic animals and plants. As it is getting increasingly serious, nobody on the earth would relax and they are not able to do anything about it. The situation which gives rise to the problem will be analyzed in the following parts. Ã¢â¬ËPoint source pollution comes mainly from industrial facilities and municipal wastewater treatment plantsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Peirce, J. Weiner, F. Vesilind, P. 1997, p. 32). Thousands of the factories have been set up in a quite short period of time along with the rapid development of industry, which release poisonous water, gases and other wastes everyday. As a result of chemicals and sewages are poured directly into rivers and lakes by various factories, the water will become poisonous and its oxygen will be exhausted, which results in many aquatic organisms to die. Most of these wastes that are poured into water are not biodegradable. Therefore, nearly all factories discharge waste into the rivers to different extent, which result in water pollution. In addition, garbage especially plastics and other plastic-like substances is one of the reason that give rise to water pollution as well. Some plastic like nylon will do great harm to fish and other marine animals. As a result of plastic can be broken down into tiny pieces that will be eaten by sea creatures and may easily lead to their death finally. Plastic is also a killer of water pollution because it will continue to kill more fish and plants. Last but not least causes of water pollution relate to personal care and household products. For instance, Shampoo, lotion, bleach, laundry detergent, and other pollutants. Both of above are accelerating the deterioration of water pollution. Consequently, human waste is not the only thing that causes pollution, these above products also join the sewage to contaminate the water. In order to improve this bad situation, some measures should be taken. For the sake of leave individuals and their future generations a scenic global environment, it is the obligation of each citizen to play a significant role and participate in environmental conservation. In the first place, everyone should establish an economic senseÃ that all trouble makersÃ should pay for the pollution. The section of government can increase the tax, and the collected money will be used to cleaning up pollution. Only everyone has an awareness of protecting the environment can this terrible situation be improved. The solution to this difficulty is the need for a collective consciousness. What is meant by this is that each individual must be aware of the impact he or she has on the world and their unique part to play in this world. Therefore, the public should hold some educational campaigns like acknowledge institute to arouse the consciousness of each individual to protect water. This is a very good and feasible measure to deal with the water pollution. In addition, technology can help to improve the quality of water as well. And clean technologies can product much less pollution. Consequently, government should offer financial support to set up sewage treatment station. It is a good way of returning water to a river without pollution. The quality of water will be improved greatly owing to these equipments. However, there are also some old technologies, which can not help to deal with sewage. According to this phenomenon, industrialized countries should collaborate with those developing countries closely for the purpose of the rich countries will not just export old and obsolete technologies. This solution is available as well to improve the awful situation of water pollution. Finally what have to mention is that many rivers have become the home of cans, bottles, glass and plastics because some of people are used to pouring dirty sewage and harmful chemicals into rivers, others throwÃ garbage into them. According to this phenomenon, citizens should abandon the bad manners and also not to use chemicals. At the same time, farmers should use other ways to kill weeds and bugs. For instance, they can pull weeds by hand. In general, people can protect the precious water in only one way: preventing the harmful chemicals from entering water. Based on the above analysis, it would be relatively safe to come to a conclusion that the problem of water pollution will destroy the organisms on the earth to a great extent. Congress has passed regulations to fight with water pollution which informed each individual the fact that water pollution is indeed a serious issue. Everyone has responsibility to protect water and make a better friendly environment. Therefore, each individual should spare no effort to achieve this goal because the government alone cannot deal with the entire problem of water pollution. Bibliography Peirce, J. Weiner, F. Vesilind, P (1997) ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and CONTROL, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Technology Books Kluger, J. Dorfman, A. (2002) The Challenges We Face. (Cover story). Time, 160(9), A6 Student of Shanghai (2012) Water pollution [WWW] Available from: http://old. jfdaily. com/gb/node2/node9140/node43355/node44009/node44769/userobject1ai1336749. html [Accessed 29/06/2012] How to cite The Impact of Industrialisation and Technology on Environment, Essays
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Marriage Laws Italy and Great Britain
Question: Demonstrate a high level understanding of knowledge in terms of marriage in private international law. Undertake a critically analysis of various aspects of marriage with foreign legal elements. Critically analyse the relevant case law and academic comments. Provide original responses from a comparative perspective. Evaluate and suggest possible alternatives to the current rules. Answer: Facts The facts of the case are summarized as follows: Romeo, aged 30 (thirty) is a Cardiff resident, which is located in South Wales, which is on the western side of Great Britain. Romeo has learning disability and Cardiff City Council has been taking care of him since he was 5 years old. Romeo was married in 2015, the same being arranged by his parents to Juliet, who was a resident from State of Verona. The marriage took place via a telephonic call from Romeo in Cardiff to Juliet in Verona According to the Veronian law, the said marriage between Romeo and Juliet is valid,. However, the same is not valid under the English law the Welsh law. Romeos parent state that the marriage is valid and Romeo should visit Verona to consummate the said marriage Thus, Cardiff City Council has requested legal opinion on the said matter/ case. Issues The issues, which have been indentified from the given facts, may be summarized as follows: Whether the said marriage between Romeo and Juliet is legal under Veronian Law Whether the said marriage between Romeo and Juliet legal under English Law? Are Romeos parents legally permitted to take Romeo to Verona to consummate the said marriage between Romeo and Juliet? Relevant legal principles and Case laws The relevant Acts of different legislations that will govern the above-mentioned case are as follows: The state of Verona is a part of Italy. Thus, the Italian law will apply at Verona. The Italian marriage law is as follows: Different Articles in the Civil Code of Italy govern the Italian marriage. According to this Code, Italy governs and regulates three types of marriages. They are as follows: Civil Marriages Civil marriages are marriages, which are conducted by a civil registrar when a couple comes to the same and shows their intention to marry each other along with two witnesses. Concordat marriage Concordat marriages are one which is regulated and conducted by the Catholic rituals Marriage by minister of non-Catholic faith This marriage is described under Article 83 of the Civil Code in Italy. According to Article 116 of the Civil Code, non-residents and residents are allowed to marry. This Article makes marriages valid if some conditions are fulfilled. The limitation of the Civil Code along with their respective Articles is as follows: No person of mental disability can contract a valid marriage. This is covered under Article 85 No person already marriage without taking a prior divorce can get into a valid marriage. This is covered under Article 86 There cannot be any legally valid marriage between direct line siblings and person connected by affinity. This is covered under Article 87 No legal marriage can be conducted when one spouse has murdered or attempted to murder the spouse of person he/ she intending to marry. This is covered under Article 88 In Italy, Article 23 provides that marriage is valid, if it is according to one of the following: The law of place where marriage is conducted The law of country of at least one spouses nationality at the time of marriage The law of state where the couple will resident together as a married couple. Italy strictly is against marriages that are against public policy like child marriage, etc. Such marriages are not allowed to be registered. Italy has a law that restricts a widowed or a divorced women to remarry again for 300 days from her husbands death or divorce. This is apparently to avoid conflicts of paternity issues in case the woman is pregnant. This forms a legal requirement for marriage in case of widowed or divorced women. In addition, if one is remarrying, their previous marriage certificate is needed to be submitted to the registrar. In case of widowed people, one needs to submit previous marriage certificate along with the death certificate of the deceased spouse. The people intending to marry have to submit an application at the consulate under whose jurisdiction the people intending to marry reside. This is the first step after having all the required documents in place. Once the same is submitted and process to get Nulla Osta can be initiated. The most important document to marry in Italy is the Nulla Osta which is No Impediment certificate issued by the Embassy of the country of the person intending to marry in Italy. This Nulla Osta is written in Italian and is valid for just six months. This certificate is to show that there is no obstruction or hindrance in doing the job its assigned for. Thus, in the said case, it shows there is no obstruction in marriage of the parties obtaining it. The next requirement is of two witnesses who are above 18 (eighteen) years of age. The wedding ceremony in Italy is conducted in Italian so if one is a foreign national, he will need an interpreter atleast two days prior to the ceremony. In addition, there is a verbal declaration at the place where the marriage is conducted two days prior to marriage stating that the said couple will be getting married and the documents are checked accordingly and it is confirmed that there is no impediment to the marriage according to Italian law. The date for the same will be mentioned at the time you book the venue and the couple needs to be present for the same for document verification personally. After all this requirements are fulfilled, a valid Italian wedding is solemnized. However, this is valid only if both the people marrying are of the same nationality that is Italian. The formalities and the requirement, somewhat, change when a Italian is marrying someone of foreign nationality. There is a step-to-step guide to all requirements needed to solemnize a marriage in Italy Application to be submitted at Consulate The first step to be taken if one wants to marry in Italy is to submit an application at the Italian Consulate. The same needs to be signed by both the parties intending to marry along with the list of all the documents that prove their identity. A photograph also needs to be attached with this application. This application can be submitted personally or via email, fax or post. There are certain cases in which the consulate can reject the application. For example, the people applying do not reside under the jurisdiction of the consulate they have applied to. However, if the consulate accepts the application, the parties application can request the consulate to post or publish their banns Publishing Banns Publishing banns is a legal necessity in Italy before one can marry. These banns are published by the local civil registrar. The life span of such banns is 6 (six) months after which one will need to re apply for all the paper formalities un case the applicants is still not married. The basic rule is that one can marry from the 4th days until the ending of the 180th day from the date the Bann is published by the local civil registrar. In case the applicant cannot personally go to ask for their banns to be published , a third party can do the same for them, but a written application will be required for the same. This need not have photograph attached to it. Application to marry in the Consulate This step is the list that shows how the banns need to be posted as applying to marry is the initial step after which the banns are posed according to the residence of the applicant. If the applicants are both Italians, loving abroad, the banns needs to be posted at the Consulate where both of the applicant reside. Incase they residence at different consulate, the banns needs to be publish at both of the Consulates. If the Italian national or a foreign national is living in Italy and the other is settles abroad, the banns needs to be published at the venue of the marriage. If both the applicant s are Italian, then banns need to be posted at the consulate where the applicants reside. In case its under two different consulate, the banns needs to be applied at both the Consulates Marriage in Italy Once the banns are published, the consulate will authorize the concern person to perform the marriage. Publishing banns only means being sure, that no one is against the applicants to marry and no one is wanting to bann is the marriage. Documents that one needs to apply for banns to be published are as follows: All Identity documentation In case, applicant cannot go in person, a written application delegation to do the same to a third person. It is necessary for an Italian marrying abroad, to send at the local consulate, the original marriage certificate issues by the respective foreign registrar. The same must be notarized and then kept in records with the Italian Registrar office as a record. To consider the present case, it is important to implement the Italian law on how it regulates if the marriage is between an Italian and a British national. If one is not an Italian but wants to marry in Italy, Nulla Osta which is a No Impediment Certificate needs to be submitted. The same needs to be translated in Italian and then notarized. It is also important to submitted an application stating that the person marrying in Italy is legally capable of marriage. A step-to-step guide on all requirements needed for marriage of an Italian and a British in Italy From 1st March, 2013, the requirements for a British to marry in Italy have changed. They are as follows: No-Impediment Certificate. A no-Impediment Certificate needs to be issued by the local registrar in the United Kingdom. The same needs to be given by the local registrar authority. The same then needs to be submitted in Italy at the Consulates office. It is very necessary that the name on the certificated issued in United Kingdom should totally match with the applicants name on his/ her passport. In case it does not, high chance Italian consulate may reject the marriage application form. Declaration before Solicitor After applying for the No-Impediment certificate, it is necessary to make an declaration before a solicitor. This declaration is needed by the Italian consulate to give information that the No-Impediment Certificate does not provide. The solicitor will charge a fee to make such a declaration on. Documents to be legalized for Italian Consulate When you have a No-Impediment Certificate in place along with a declaration from solicitor, both these documents need to be send to the FCO (Foreign and Commonwealth Office). The FCO legalizes the documents and charges some fee for the same, which needs to be paid. The same can be paid from their official site. For more information, the Foreign and Commonwealth website can be visited. Translating Certificate The No-Impediment certificate needs to be in Italian always as per the Italian marriage law. Thus, after the No-Impediment certificate and solicitors certificate is legalized, the No-Impediment certificated needs to be translated.. For a marriage to take place in Italy, the same needs to become an Italian document and the same needs to be eligible to be produce in Italian Courts. The translator will charge some fee to do the same. The solicitors declaration need not be translated into Italian. Thus an U.K nations needs No-Impediment certificate, translated in Italian and issues in United Kingdom, Solicitors Declaration and a Passport to be finally submitted at the venue of the marriage, two days before the marriage date and the applicant be personally resent for documents verification. It is to be noted that the validity of the no-Impediment certificate is not more that 6 (six) months. It is also necessary to note that a woman under Italian law who is either a divorcee or a widow cannot marry for 300 days from the date of the divorce or from the date of her husbands demise. Thus, this needs to be kept in mind before applying for No-Impediment certificate incase a British is marrying a divorcee or a Widowed Italian woman. Marriage in Britain: In England and Wales, marriage is recognized legally in civil laws and the religious unions. A marriage can be solemnized between a couple of opposite-sex or same-sex. Marriage laws in England and Wales evolved historically from the other jurisdictions of marriage laws of the United Kingdom. In England, religious marriage and civil marriage is different, where an authorized religious authority conducts the first and the later conducted by the state register. Who can get married? For marriage, one has to give formal notice of their wish for getting married at the office of local register. This rule came into force from 13th March, 2014. A civil ceremony can organize for same sex couple, which is, legalize in the England and Wales from 29th March, 2014. The marriage of same sex couples may be possible in the religious ritual in case the particular religious organization approved with such couples marriage. However, marriage of same sex couple cannot be solemnized in a Church of England or Wales. From 16th December, 2014, Scotland allowed the same sex marriage. Any formal notice of marriage is not necessary to be given by the same sex couple in Scotland. 14 days clear notice is must for the marriage of the couple and it must be given. Whereas, in Northern Ireland, same sex marriage is not valid. However, the couple of same sex who are married in the England, are treated as the civil partners in Northern Ireland. In England and Wales, Same sex couple who got married under any foreign law, are recognized as married. All the couples can be married if they are both 16 years or more, single, divorced or widowed, or if the couple being in the civil partnership, then that should be dissolved. Who cannot get married When one person wish to get married in the age of 16 or 17 years, they cannot get married without the parental consent. In certain circumstances, people other than the parents may offer consent as of the parents. In Northern Ireland, any party under 18 have no right to marry without the permission of some people. Relatives who can not marry Marriage is not permitted in between some relatives. If those relatives marry to each other, the marriage will become void automatically even if they are not aware of the fact that they related to each other in such a way. A person in England and Wales are not allowed to marry the following relatives: a child of one, which included an adopted child one of the parent, including the adoptive parent sister or brother, including any half-sister or half-brother sister or brother of parents, including the half-sister or half-brother grandchild a grandparent a child of sister's or brother's, which included the half-sister's or half-brother's. The genetic grandparents and parents are not permitted to get married with the adopted children. If they perform marriage, the marriage will be null and void automatically. This rule is applicable even if the person does not know about their relations. The adopted children are not permitted to marry with adoptive parents, but they are permitted to marry the other members of the adoptive family, which included their adoptive sister or brother. In certain circumstances, people in the in-laws or step relations, may be able to marry. Getting engaged Engagement is generally for the cultural motives and has a limited status. Engagements can be used, as an evidence of their intention to get married in the immigration law. Engagement is not used as the agreement of marriage and cannot be legally enforced. If the engagement broke, a woman is able to keep the ring of engagement unless, she gave it at the time of break up. At the time of engagement, the man should specifically mention that the ring might be returned if engagement be broken. The other properties, which belong to couple, must be distributed between both of them in equal proportion as the property might be divided in case of divorce. Pre-nuptial and post-nuptial agreements First is a contract, which is entered between the parties before their marriage, which states the wish of the couple to divide their property and money in case they get divorce. The later agreement is same as before, but signed after the marriage. These two agreements are legally binding till the Court consider it unfair. Where can a marriage take place If the religious organization permitted wedding of same sex, and the premises is registered for the same-sex marriage, then only same sex couples marry following the religious rituals. Same sex couples are not permitted to marry in the Church of England or Wales. A marriage may be solemnized in: Register Office local authority approved premises such as hotel a Church of England, Church of Ireland, Church in Wales, Roman Catholic or Presbyterian Church in N. Ireland (opposite sex couples only) any private place like synagogue if the partners are Jewish a Meeting House in case the partners either members of the Society of Friends (Quakers) or associated with any of the Society by attending the meetings any religious building which is registered (England and Wales only) any home or place where one of the partners may be housebound or detained, e.g., in the prison a hospital as one of the partners is seriously ill and is not expected to recover a licensed air force, naval or military chapel. Civil marriage ceremonies Giving notice Persons who want to get married must give notice of marriage in the local Register Office, in spite of the fact that one wishes to marry in that particular district. In Northern Ireland, the register or the Superintendent Register then issue the authority for marriage. After that, one may get married in any of the Register Office or any local authority permitted premises in any of the district. 28 days of notice should be given to Office of Register before solemnization of the marriage. The partners, before giving the notice of marriage, must be the resident in England or Wales at-least for seven days. In notice, one must mention where the marriage will take place. They have to pay the fee for giving notice. Procedure for civil marriage Some definite information needed to submit when one gives the notice for marriage as the objective to marry. Any false information given by one person in this regard is criminal offence. The information which is required as follows: evidence of the address and name evidence for date of birth in case one of the partner was married previously or was in the civil partnership with other person, the documentary evidence that shows the marriage or the civil partnership has broken, e.g., a decree absolute or a death certificate. Photocopies of such documents which are uncertified are not accepted. The court which has decided the divorce of one partner should give the certified copy of the decree absolute which can be taken about a week the evidence of the nationality. Multiple documents may be shown as the evidence of the information which is required. Such as a passport or birth certificate or a travel document is sufficient as evidence. People from foreign or overseas can be asked to produce their passports before the Register. However, to show a passport is not a legal requirement before marriage and despite, one can be produced the birth certificate with the certified translation of the certificate if necessary, any affidavit or any other individual identity document. Person is subjected to immigration control if he is not: a British citizen or an EEA national or person who don't have the conditions attached for his stay in the UK, because he is, may be a diplomat, or he is member of visiting armed forces. Religious marriage ceremonies (England and Wales only) The Church of Wales and England allowed the marriage be register at the time of its performing in the religious way and by religious ceremony. A notice of the marriage is not necessary to be given to any Register Office if the parties are non-EEA national. If they are EEA national, they require to give a 28 days notice to a Register Office. In any other religious marriages, one needs to furnish the notice of marriage before 28 days to a Register Office. The other religions ministers and priests may be authorized to register the marriages and they should have a license or certificate to perform the marriage from any Superintendent Registrar. For the Jewish and Quaker marriages, the authorization of marriage is automatic. Capacity to get married Consent is an important issue for the capacity to join in a marriage. In KC v City of Westminster Social and Community Services Department (2008) EWCA 198, it was found that a man of 26 years old, who had mental capability of a 3 year old, was unfit to enter into a marriage, which was conducted via the telephone by the man in England with the a woman, the other party in Bangladesh. The court held that the court is duty bound to protect that man. In spite of the mental capacity of the man, the marriage has already solemnized and this marriage is valid under both the Bangladeshi law and the Sharia law. By this marriage, the wife of the man, who is a native of Bangladesh can obtain a UK visa. In case a marriage becomes voidable, means that the marriage will become void from the very time of the decree of nullity is issued by the court. The annulment of the marriage may be asked by the two parties involved in a voidable marriage. Otherwise the voidable marriage will continue as a legal entity. Generally, an application for annulment of the marriage must be made in the court within three years of the marriage. Reasons for which a marriage may be declared as voidable include: Non-consummation due to the incapacity of either partner; Wilful non-consummation by the respondent; One or both parties not consenting to the marriage, for reasons of duress, mistake, or an unsound mind; The mental disorder of the respondent, making them unfit for marriage; The respondent is suffering from any communicable venereal disease when the marriage solemnized; The pregnancy of the Respondent was by someoneelse other than the marriage partner. Application In the present case, Romeo was from Cardiff, which is located in United Kingdom and Juliet was from the state of Verona, which is located in Italy. Thus, this makes it clear that both the parties are from different cities, being governed under different set of rules and regulations. The procedure to solemnize a marriage is therefore different in both these cities making the validity of marriage also differ in both the states. The procedure for marriages in both places differs majorly. In Italy, the Consulate is responsible for marriage registration and in Britain its the Local Registrar. Unlike in Italy, no banns need to be published in Britain. It simply requires a 28 days prior notice of the intent to marry by the parties. After which, all the legal documents are checked and the marriage is then registered if all documents are correctly verified. In Italy however, after banns are published, it is the parties duty to again apply to the Consulate who will make a declaration in which the parties to the marriage need to personally be present, the consulate then after verification of documents asks the person who performs the marriage ceremony to formally do the same for the applicant couple. The marriage between Romeo and Juliet was that of a British and a Italian, thus, the laws governing marriage between a British and Italian are also given above. The process of the same is very simple with just 4 step of attaining a No-impediment certificate, then solicitors declaration and then the process of getting all documents legalized by the FCO (Foreign and Commonwealth Organization) and lastly translating the No-Impediment certificate into Italian. This clearly states that in the present case, of Romeo and Juliet none of these procedures were followed. Just a telephone call cannot solemnize a marriage. As none of the above procedures were followed, the marriage between Romeo and Juliet was not valid. After discussing, the procedure to marry, coming to the point in the present case, which stated that, Romeo married Juliet via a telephonic call also is very debatably when it comes to considering the validity of marriage laws. Most countries in the world do not support marriage via telephonic call. However, in Italy, the Italian court in a case decided on February 2007 ruled in favor of telephonic call being held valid in Italy. Mushtaq, was a Pakistani citizen who worked in Italy with a valid work permit. The Italian Embassy refused him the permit to get him his wife to Italy not recognizing the marriage. Mushtaq was in Italy when the said marriage was solemnized with his wife who was in Pakistan. Considering this the Italian Court Ruled that the validated of the marriage can be judged on the basis of the law in which the marriage is conducted. Thus, the marriage being legal in Pakistan, where it was conducted makes the telephonic marriage legal in Italy too. This case law makes it clear that if the marriage is legal in the country in which the marriage is celebrated or conducted, the Italian law will consider it valid too. However, in the present case of Romeo and Juliet, the marriage via telephonic call gets valid in Italy only when it is valid in United Kingdom. Is telephone marriage valid in United Kingdom? The law in the United Kingdom does not permit marriages if they are conducted: if one of the parties to marriage is represented by a proxy, appointed in place of the person getting married if the procedure to marry is via phone, video calling or Skype However, United Kingdom follows the same law that the Italian Courts decided. In United Kingdom too, if the marriage is valid according to the law of the place in which it is conducted, it is recognized as valid for all purposes in United Kingdom. Many legislations in the world recognize marriage as valid if its conducted via phone or Skype. If the land in which the marriage is conducted recognizes it to be legal, then United Kingdom respects the law of the land of the place and the people who come from it. Usually, across the world, telephonic phone calls are not considered to be valid across the world because it lacks the basic requirement of witnesses. Witness is a requirement which majority of the marriage law across the world need. On a telephonic call, this requirement is not fulfilled. One more reason can be that anyone can deceive his or her voice to marry someone pretending to be someone else. Thus, one party to marriage may think he/ she is marrying a particular person whereas in reality it is someone else with just the particular persons voice. This is a major shortcoming of a telephonic marriage. Thus, in the resent case it is clear that Romeo and Juliets marriage via telephone stands invalid and unrecognized under both British and Italian law. Both laws do not give recognize to such marriages, unless they are recognized in the place where its conducted. As Romeos marriage with Juliet was conducted in Cardiff via telephone call to Juliet in Verona, both Cardiff and Verona are the place where the marriage is conducted, and in both these places, the law does not recognize telephone marriage. Thus, Romeo and Juliets marriage via telephone call is surely invalid and unrecognized. Coming to the point, in the present case, which states that Romeo lacked mental capacity to get into a wedlock. It is now necessary to consider mental capacity as a necessity to a valid marriage in both Italian and British law. In the Italian Civil Code, Article 85, states that a person suffering from mental disability cannot get married. It further states that in case the process of mental disability has started after the parties have been engaged, the Public Prosecutor can ask to postpone the said marriage until he can make a decision whether to allow or disallow such marriage. In the Italian Civil Code, Article 119, states that marriage of a person with mental disability can be consented by a parent, guardian or a public prosecutor. Consent can be given even if the mental disability did not exist previously but clearly existed at the time of marriage. Thus, in the present case, Romeo had learning disability since the age of 5, which clearly makes him not eligible to marry according to Article 85 of the Italian Civil Code. Also under Article 119, Romeos parents consenting to the marriage does not serve as a justification as Juliet was unaware of the fact that Romeo is a slow learner. This makes Romeos marriage to Juliet invalid even in Italy. In United Kingdom, marriage where a person is mentally ill is considered voidable. Under section 12 of the Matrimonial Clauses Act, 1973, in United Kingdom, a marriage is considered voidable if at the time of marriage, one party even though capable of consenting to the marriage, is suffering from a mental disability, making the party unfit to the said marriage. The definition of mental disability here should be according to the definition of the same mentioned in The Mental Health Act, 1959. The definition of Mental disability in the Mental Health Act, 1959 states mental illness, arrested or incomplete development of mind, psychopathic disorder and any other disorder or disability of the mind. Voidable marriages are marriages, which can be cancelled at the request of any one party getting into it. Such marriages are valid, but if one of the parties to the marriage wants to cancel the same, the marriage stands cancelled and void. The party needs to file in the concern Court to cancel the marriage and if the Courts accepts the application, the marriage is cancelled. Thus, in the given case, Romeo was a slow learner since the age of 5. This clearly states that he was mentally ill and was also supported by Cardiff City Council. This according to the law of United Kingdom, in The Matrimonial Clauses Act, 1973 under section 12, the marriage between Romeo and Juliet was voidable at the option for Juliet to cancel the marriage with an application to the Court stating that Romeo is not mentally eligible to marry. This makes it clear that in the present case, the marriage between Romeo and Juliet is not valid even in United Kingdom as it can be cancelled with merely an application from Juliet to consider the marriage void. This also makes it clear that Romeos parents are not legally permitted to take Romeo o the state of Verona for the marriage between Romeo and Juliet to consummate the same. Conclusion In the present case, Romeo was from Cardiff, which is located in United Kingdom. The facts clearly suggest that he had learning disability and was supported by Cardiff City Council since the age of 5.Thus Romeos marriage to Juliet stands voidable because he was not mentally fit to decision on marrying someone. In United Kingdom, even The Mental Capacity Act, 2005 states that a person who is mentally unfit cannot be considered fit to make decisions on important events in life like marriage, civil partnership, etc. In the present case, Juliet is eligible to file an application in the concerned Court stating that Romeo was not mentally fit at the time of their marriage, and the Court will grant her application, making the said marriage void. Even under the Italian law, marrying a person with mental disability is not permitted under Article 85 of the Italian Civil Code. This is the reason the marriage between, Romeo and Juliet is not valid and not recognized according to the land of laws of both the places from where Romeo and Juliet belong. It is also necessary to consider here, that Romeos parents who consented for his marriage also does not stand as a valid justification to validate the marriage between Romeo and Juliet. The facts of the case are uncertain on the point of Juliets knowledge about Romeos mental illness; this is another reason where the consent of Romeos parents becomes invalid as any justification to validate the said marriage between Romeo and Juliet. Coming to the procedure, in which Romeo and Juliet married, which was by a telephonic call from Romeo to Juliet. A marriage via telephonic call is not recognized in most of the countries across the world. The reason being lack of witnesses, even thought there are witnesses hearing the people on the telephonic call taking marriage vows, there is no proper procedure for the witnesses to sign and seal that they witnesses the two parties on the phone marrying one another. Another reason being that, one can easily deceive someones voice and marry the other person on the phone pretending to be someone who she/he is not. Even in the present case, Romeo and Juliet married each other by a telephonic call from Romeo to Juliet, in both the legislations that govern the parties to marriage in this case; a marriage via telephonic call is not recognized. In Italy, a marriage is considered valid via telephone call if the same is valid in the country where the said marriage was conducted or celebrated. In the present case Romeo called from Cardiff which is in United Kingdom, the marriage not being valid via phone in United Kingdom stands unrecognized even in Italy. Thus in the present case, considering all the arguments made above, it is clear that Romeo and Juliet are not legally married and thus, Romeos parents are not lawfully permitted to take Romeo to the state of Verona where Juliet resides to consummate the said marriage. Romeos parents, if take Romeo to Verona to consummate the marriage between him and Juliet will be committing a serious offence. Reference List Anderson, O., 1975. The incidence of civil marriage in Victorian England and Wales.Past and Present, pp.50-87. Anderson, O., 1975. The incidence of civil marriage in Victorian England and Wales.Past and Present, pp.50-87. Andrews, J.A., 1959. The common law marriage.The Modern Law Review,22(4), pp.396-407. Auchmuty, R., 2004. Same-sex marriage revived: Feminist critique and legal strategy.Feminism Psychology,14(1), pp.101-126. Barlow, A., Duncan, S. and James, G., 2002. New Labour, the rationality mistake and family policy in Britain.Analysing Families: Morality and rationality in policy and practice, p.115. Bhui, K., McKenzie, K. and Gill, P., 2004. Delivering mental health services for a diverse society: we need to marry policy and practice.BMJ: British Medical Journal,329(7462), p.363. Boyle, G., 2008. The Mental Capacity Act 2005: promoting the citizenship of people with dementia?.Health social care in the community,16(5), pp.529-537. Charsley, K., 2006. Risk and ritual: the protection of British Pakistani women in transnational marriage.Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies,32(7), pp.1169-1187. Copeman-Bryant, C., 2006.A Marriage Made in Italy-The Wedding Planning Guide (2006-2008). Lulu. com. Copeman-Bryant, C., 2006.A Marriage Made in Italy-The Wedding Planni Pizzi, W.T. and Marafioti, L., 1992. New Italian Code of Criminal Procedure: The Difficulties of Building an Adversarial Trial System on a Civil Law Foundation, The.Yale J. Int'l L.,17, p.1. Gallagher, M., 2001. What is Marriage For-The Public Purposes of Marriage Law.La. L. Rev.,62, p.773. Varano, V., 1997. Civil Procedure Reform in Italy.The American Journal of Comparative Law, pp.657-674. Copeman-Bryant, C., 2006.A Marriage Made in Italy-The Wedding Planning Guide (2006-2008). Lulu. com. Embassy, U.S., 2013. Getting Married in Italy. Zontini, E., 2004.Italian families and social capital: Rituals and the provision of care in British-Italian transnational families. London: Families Social Capital ESRC Research Group, London South Bank University. Embassy, U.S., 2011. Obtaining Certified Copies of Original Documents Zontini, E., 2004.Italian families and social capital: Rituals and the provision of care in British-Italian transnational families. London: Families Social Capital ESRC Research Group, London South Bank University. Copeman-Bryant, C., 2006.A Marriage Made in Italy-The Wedding Planning Guide (2006-2008). Lulu. com Hajnal, J., 1947. Aspects of recent trends in marriage in England and Wales.Population Studies,1(1), pp.72-98. Anderson, O., 1975. The incidence of civil marriage in Victorian England and Wales.Past and Present, pp.50-87. Andrews, J.A., 1959. The common law marriage.The Modern Law Review,22(4), pp.396-407. Auchmuty, R., 2004. Same-sex marriage revived: Feminist critique and legal strategy.Feminism Psychology,14(1), pp.101-126. Koppelman, A., 1997. Same-Sex Marriage, Choice of Law, and Public Policy.Tex. L. Rev.,76, p.921. Edlund, L. and Lagerlf, N.P., 2006. Individual vs. parental consent in marriage: implications for intra-household resource allocation and growth. Hajnal, J., 1947. Aspects of recent trends in marriage in England and Wales.Population Studies,1(1), pp.72-98. Darwin, G.H., 2009. Marriages between first cousins in England and their effects.International journal of epidemiology,38(6), pp.1429-1439. Darwin, G.H., 2009. Marriages between first cousins in England and their effects.International journal of epidemiology,38(6), pp.1429-1439. Sykes, E.I., 1955. The Essential Validity of Marriage.International and Comparative Law Quarterly,4(02), pp.159-169. Anderson, O., 1975. The incidence of civil marriage in Victorian England and Wales.Past and Present, pp.50-87. Anderson, O., 1975. The incidence of civil marriage in Victorian England and Wales.Past and Present, pp.50-87. Barlow, A., Duncan, S. and James, G., 2002. New Labour, the rationality mistake and family policy in Britain.Analysing Families: Morality and rationality in policy and practice, p.115. Gillis, J.R., 1985.For better, for worse: British marriages, 1600 to the present. Oxford University Press. Probert, R., 2008. Hanging on the Telephone: City of Westminster v IC.Child Fam. LQ,20, p.395. Shaw, C.H. and Wright, C., 1960. The married mental defective: A follow-up study.The Lancet,275(7118), pp.273-275. Owen, G.S., Richardson, G., David, A.S., Szmukler, G., Hayward, P. and Hotopf, M., 2008. Mental capacity to make decisions on treatment in people admitted to psychiatric hospitals: cross sectional study.BMj,337. Owen, G.S., Richardson, G., David, A.S., Szmukler, G., Hayward, P. and Hotopf, M., 2008. Mental capacity to make decisions on treatment in people admitted to psychiatric hospitals: cross sectional study.BMj,337. Skapinakis, P., Lewis, G., Araya, R., Jones, K. and Williams, G., 2005. Mental health inequalities in Wales, UK: multi-level investigation of the effect of area deprivation.The British Journal of Psychiatry,186(5), pp.417-422. Bhui, K., McKenzie, K. and Gill, P., 2004. Delivering mental health services for a diverse society: we need to marry policy and practice.BMJ: British Medical Journal,329(7462), p.363. Standley, K., 1993. Void and Voidable Marriagesthe Law of Nullity. InFamily Law(pp. 24-34). Macmillan Education UK. Smith, J.S., 1914. Marriage, sterilization and commitment laws aimed at decreasing mental deficiency.Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, pp.364-370. Hajnal, J., 1947. Aspects of recent trends in marriage in England and Wales.Population Studies,1(1), pp.72-98. Perlin, M., 1999.Mental disability law(pp. 3-8). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press. Keywood, K., 2003. Gatekeepers, proxies, advocates? The evolving role of carers under mental health and mental incapacity law reforms.Journal of social welfare and family law,25(4), pp.355-368. Keywood, K., 2003. Gatekeepers, proxies, advocates? The evolving role of carers under mental health and mental incapacity law reforms.Journal of social welfare and family law,25(4), pp.355-368. Keywood, K., 2003. Gatekeepers, proxies, advocates? The evolving role of carers under mental health and mental incapacity law reforms.Journal of social welfare and family law,25(4), pp.355-368. Lorenzen, E.G., 1919. Marriage by Proxy and the Conflict of Laws.Harvard Law Review, pp.473-488. Youngblood, J.T., 1954. Domestic Relations--Capacity to Marry.Ky. LJ,43, p.415. Ham, C., 2009.Health policy in Britain. Palgrave Macmillan. Crowther, R.E., Marshall, M., Bond, G.R. and Huxley, P., 2001. Helping people with severe mental illness to obtain work: systematic review.Bmj,322(7280), pp.204-208. Herrman, Helen, Shekhar Saxena, and Rob Moodie.Promoting mental health: concepts, emerging evidence, practice: a report of the World Health Organization Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation and the University of Melbourne. World Health Organization, 2005. Tolstoy, D., 1964. Void and Voidable Marriages.The Modern Law Review, pp.385-394. Scanlan, L., Murch, M., Douglas, G. and Lord Chancellor's Dept., London (United Kingdom). Research Secretariat;, 1999.Safeguarding children's welfare in uncontentious divorce A study of S 41 of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973. Crowther, R.E., Marshall, M., Bond, G.R. and Huxley, P., 2001. Helping people with severe mental illness to obtain work: systematic review.Bmj,322(7280), pp.204-208. Boyle, G., 2008. The Mental Capacity Act 2005: promoting the citizenship of people with dementia?.Health social care in the community,16(5), pp.529-537.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
The Past Essays - Spirituality, Culture, Religion,
The Past The past is the root of the present whereas the present is the seed of the future; the pastness of the past has its present too. If the present is the culmination of the past, it is also the take-off stage for the future. Obviously all the three have an organic relation whether we take them from the point of view of human life, nature or human institutions. Human life, during its evolutionary course, leaves behind a trail, a beaten path, a tradition, or the tradition which crystallizes itself into the culture of that nation. Otherwise also the abortive efforts of the past make the persons wiser, experienced and better equipped for action; the successful adventures inspire us to do our work enthusiastically. Similarly Nature, as it is, has retained much of ancient character though it has been evolving all through. Nature, in no case, can be considered something amorphous, transient and for the present only. Similarly human institutions of the past and the future have a clao se relation with the present, for example, religion, which had been dominating not only the life but also the thinking of the people in the past has been reduced to the level of a private affair. There is a possibility that religious outlook, with a greater emphasis on moral virtues, may assume a greater significance. Religion, some think, alone can solve the problems of the world. S. Radhakrishnan once said, "Irreligion is our malady, religion is only cure." The past, the present and the future cannot be studied in a state of isolation.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Hurt People Hurt People Essays
Hurt People Hurt People Essays Hurt People Hurt People Paper Hurt People Hurt People Paper Dr. Wilson opens her book by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s true, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? Hurt people hurt people. Ã¢â¬ (2001 pg. 9) It is Dr. WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that by shedding light on Hurt People Hurt People she shows a cycle that can be broken. Wilson explores unseen wounds, how they are created through childhood, and caretakers within our lifetime. Dr. Wilson exhaustively demonstrates the help there is for the different wounds and how to heal them. She provides information for healing self inflected wounds, worshipers and parents. Wilson concludes her thoughts with help f or hopeful tomorrow. Dr. Wilson believes when hurts are to seen it does not mean they are not real. Unfortunately in society it is reinforced if the wound is not bleeding or unseen they are not real. Wilson says, Ã¢â¬Å"Many doubt the reality of wounds unless a person can display scars from physical abuse. Ã¢â¬ (2001, pg. 27) Dr. Wilson shows the beginning of a cycle. When unseen wounds go unrecognized how are they ever healed? Not only do the wounds go unhealed but now there are more hurt people. Ã¢â¬Å"If IÃ¢â¬â¢m correct in my assertion that hurt people hurt people, we have a major problem. By ignoring scores of hurt people because their injuries remain invisible to us, we are creating a new generation of hurtful people. Ã¢â¬ (2001, pg. 26) She elaborates on shame and how it is related with the unseen wounds. Ã¢â¬Å"Shame is rooted in the lie that human beings can and should be perfect. Ã¢â¬ (2001, pg. 17) By understanding shame the author enables the reader to make the connection between shame and unseen wounds can blind and bind us. It is unfortunate, as this continues the cycle of how hurt people hurt people. Dr. Wilson continues by discussing liars and thieves which surprisingly enough is base on parents. By stealing security, stability and safety parents put their children in situations which cause wounds. There are several examples of each item listed above and some of the outcomes. She discusses physical and sexual abuse in detail. Ã¢â¬Å"Parents and other adult authority figures who neglect and abuse children in these figures who neglect and abuse children in these and other ways are truest bandits. They steal a childÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity for trust with profound effect on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s later relationships with God and others. Ã¢â¬ (2001, pg. 54) By misrepresenting the truths of parenting Wilson exposes how much damage parents inflict upon their children. Children who do not grow up with security, safety, and validation they fail to see their self worth. Healing works on several levels, Dr. Wilson gives different ideals to deal with healing self concept and perfectionism wounds. She tells the reader to know the difference among self focused and self awareness, learning who you are and how you characterize yourself. Ã¢â¬Å"As healing progresses you will continually redefine yourself as you reevaluate the events of your childhood in way that accept them as parts of your personal history without letting them claim the core of your identity. Ã¢â¬ (2001, pg. 117) Wilson provides a worshipersÃ¢â¬â¢ H. O. P. E Chart, this is a healing overview and progress evaluation chart. She breaks down key issues, seeing truth, new choices and new practices. This allows the reader to assess regions of spiritual wounds. This can be very effective in individual growth. She also providers a similar chart for parents and forgivers. Wilson concludes her book with help for hopeful tomorrows. She delves into hope and why we need it. Ã¢â¬Å"God has a plan for the effects of our hurting and hurtful lives, the effects that we would prefer to have Him remove. Ã¢â¬ (2001, pg. 235) She leads the reader back to God, who is the healer of all things and this is where our hope originates from. By showing the reader even in the midst of all of our imperfections, wounds, and hurts He is there with and everlasting love and ability to heal. Ã¢â¬Å"Of all hopes this is the greatest: the promise of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s everlasting love. He plasters that promise from one end of His Word to the other. We come bruised, broken and bound. Jesus comes healing, mending, and releasing. Ã¢â¬ (2001, pg. 240) She shows the reader there is no greater hope than this in Christ Jesus. Evaluation Dr. Wilson giver her interpretation of Hurt People Hurt People. By showing how people are hurt through childhood, self inflicted hurts, and unseen wounds she paints a picture of why and how we now have a new generation of hurt people. Wilson goes further to give some solutions as to how to heal these hurt people. I believe Dr. Wilson did achieve her intended purpose to demonstrate why hurt people hurt people. It sounds like a cliche, but it was very true. Her argument was logical and well supported by her examples and statistical data. This book taught how to look below the surface of hurt people. By examining closer the reasons behind the wounds we are able to see how we can effectively counsel hurt people and break the cycle that always continues with the next generation. Dr. Wilson gave very many examples when explaining her work. She did include biblical references, but not as often as I have come accustomed to. I would like to see more interactive parts in the book. At the end of chapter she included a prayer, but I think by including more thought provoking questions at the end of each chapter it could have provided a better opportunity for change. There were also many times she could have incorporated Scriptures which could aid in the healing process, but she limited her Scripture quotes. Dr. Wilson gave a refreshing approach to an old problem. She gave in depth information as it applied to the corresponding chapter. By having the reader to take a close look at the cycle that is perpetuated the Christian Counselor gains a different insight. This book is an easy read and could be used by Christian Counselors, Pastors and individuals seeking more information on this topic. As a social worker dealing with sex abuse, this was also useful for the field I am currently in, as Dr. Wilson was very detailed concerning sexual abuse. There are a many that shy away from it, or superficially cover the topic. She handled it very appropriately with excellent information. Wilson is not wordy and the book does flow easily from one chapter to the next. Overall Dr. Wilson did an excellent job allowing the reader to understand her approach. References Wilson, S. (2001). Hurt People Hurt People. Grand Rapids, MI: Discovery House Publishers.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Martin Luther King Jr Day Essay Ã¢â¬ A Life to Be Remembered
Martin Luther King Jr Day Essay Ã¢â¬â A Life to Be Remembered ItÃ¢â¬â¢s in times like these that we must turn our heads from the future, and the present, to look back on the brilliant minds of the past. From this vantage certain questions can be jarring. For example, how different would the state of world today be if Martin Luther King Jr had been the first African American president? At this moment in history many Americans believe the US government is the #1 threat to liberty and the pursuit of justice, once again. It was the same in his day. The degree to which civil liberties have been eroded for all Americans, not just those of color, is disturbing; shocking really. Both Martin Luther King Jr. and President Obama are Nobel Peace Prize winners. One for combating racial inequality, and the other for wellÃ¢â¬ ¦no one really knows and the President himself offered to give it back. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening? When did we lose control? To write an essay, letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look at a couple select parts of the world renowned and historic speech, I Have a Dream and compare it to where most Americans find themselves today. And, as we do, letÃ¢â¬â¢s ask ourselves what itÃ¢â¬â¢s going to take before another leader like Mr. Luther King Jr. stands up and begins to speak. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. Income disparity is at historic levels. The fact of the matter is that nearly all of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth is concentrated in the hands of a tiny portion of society. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re talking literally off the charts inequality (borderline banana republic). While over 100 million have left the conventional workforce to become discouraged or underemployed workers, Wall Street is seeing new highs. As of right now the DOW just reached its 143rd new record of 2013. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. Because of the rampant fiscal calamities, compounded by the loss of civil liberties and the disenfranchisement of the masses in the completely inept political establishment, a ferocious class war is brewing. The right and left sides of the isle have never been so polarized throughout the nation. Online and around dinner tables from Seattle to New York serious constitutional, legislative and legal arguments are getting heated. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. The state still has some political, economic, educational, labor problems. Debt is progressing. Through inflation and the devaluation of the dollar, at least 80% of America is being increasingly oppressed and then taxed to the gills with interest on money created out of thin air. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. In this respect Martin would be proud of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s youth at large. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re not perfect and have many flaws, but they sit at the cusp of a new age where through technology they find empowerment. Free knowledge, networking, business, virtual currencies, etc. Millennials will be the brunt of the workforce soon, and with them will come unprecedented changes. Freedom, real honest to goodness freedom, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what we see when we look at a black and white photo of him. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what we feel when we hear his words: And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that: Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. Sooner or later the pendulum of freedom will swing back towards a more balanced 21st century society. And when it does there will be great minds at the helm of powerful movement who themselves will have likely read and re-read those words above. A life remembered still has the power to change the world.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Political Economy (Theories of Late Capitalism) Essay
Political Economy (Theories of Late Capitalism) - Essay Example Resultantly, this era also witnessed a transition from traditional culture to Western culture that prevailed in OECD Countries. Frieden also mention the failure of countries from Sub-Sahara Region to catch up the economic progress that took place. FriedenÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas on economic progress that took place during last three decades of 20th Century therefore indicate a radical transition to globalization and emergence of new economic changes that took place mostly in East Asia and OECD countries. Rifkin on the other hand however, is of the view that the last three decades of 20th century witnessed a radical shift into the production process as economic evolution took place during the period. Most importantly, Rifkin defined the relationship between the production process and the firms by arguing that the current period was dominated by the control of ideas and concepts of the employees. The production process which historically dependent on the control of raw materials wherein modern production processes depended on the knowledge based workers. The creation of knowledge based societies therefore were the most instrumental objects which brought the necessary change into the production process. As the labor force became more skilled and knowledgeable, the essential relationship between the labor and production process change fundamentally to accommodate the basic changes that emerge as a result of this shift into the production processes. Thus Rifkin view last three decades as periods of history in which production process and its relationship with other objects changed radically. Harvey, however, views post modernity not as a unique case and consider it as a constant aspect of capitalism and relate it to the phenomenon which is cultural specific. This view is relatively contradictory as compared to the views of Frieden or even Rifikin. Frieden view the last three decades of previous
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
A comparison of Hebrew Flood Story, Babylonian and Summarian Flood Research Paper
A comparison of Hebrew Flood Story, Babylonian and Summarian Flood Story - Research Paper Example Only one man and his family were saved in each case. The Hebrew flood story, which is sometimes called the Genesis flood story, tells of a man called Noah, who was the only righteous man in his time. Noah was commanded by God to build an ark and gather a pair of all species of life; a male and a female, into it. These animals joined Noah and his family in the ark when the floods came. In a sense, Noah was the second Adam. He was destined to be the new progenitor of the human race. Those of his generation were destroyed because of their evil ways. The Babylon flood story was the first one to be discovered, and talks of Utnapishtim who is like the Biblical Noah who was used by the gods, to build a ship and save mankind. The Summarian flood story is a myth that talks of a Summarian hero called Gilgamesh who transverse the world to deceive death that is; he wanted to be immortal, and he came across an old man Utnapishtim who told him of the past incidents of the flood in Babylon that mad e him immortal. The flood story is copied from Babylonian Gilgamesh era, and it is one of the versions of Babylonian flood stories. Although it is not clear if Hebrew flood story was derived from an earlier Babylonian flood story, or the Summarian flood story was the one copied from an earlier Hebrew flood story, or that both of them were imitation of the same source that gives an earlier date for both of them. Similarities between the Hebrew flood story, Babylonian and Summarian flood story The stories shows how mankind had become intolerable to God and the gods and were guilty of sin thus were punished. In Hebrews story, mankind had become so immoral and evil; and in Babylonian story, they had become too many and raucous to god. The Summarian man kind was too noisy for the gods. The floods marked the turning point in the relationship between gods and man kind and he decided to use the floods to punish them for their sins. The Hebrew Flood story talks of NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to safeg uard mankind after God had punished them. In all the stories, there was a relationship between gods and the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s, this shows the cultural and moral perspective of the stories as floods are also used in each story, to show the common origin (Boadt 189). The stories show that there exists a Supreme Being that saw the human beings in the world as wicked and thus they should be punished and hence he destroyed the world by flood. The gods used one person in all cases to build an ark that will withstand the flood when he destroys the world. It is the same person that the gods use to create a new generation. In Hebrew flood story, he used Noah, one man who was his favorite to save his family and the representatives of all living creatures. In Babylonia flood story Ea the god of wisdom used Utnapishtim who was his favourite righteous man and he is the one who was warned and informed of the destruction through a dream. The meanings of the names although differ as Noah means Ã¢â¬Å"r estÃ¢â¬ while Utnapishtim means Ã¢â¬Å"finder of lifeÃ¢â¬ . None of the people used was faultless but, the gods considered them righteous compared to the people around them. In Summarian flood story, Gilgamesh was a domineering ruler to his subjects and they in turn, called upon the gods, to send him nemesis. It is the same persons that the gods ordered to build arks, which were to have many compartments, and it is the same boats that would eventually escape the floods. The human kind was to escape the floods by boarding the ark. At the same time, the people at that time did not have the technological know how to build such things as vehicles, or airplanes thus the ark was constructed. The gods further used these same individuals to warn the rest of the coming
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Literature Review on Marketing Essay Example for Free
Literature Review on Marketing Essay This part of the thesis deals with the research and critical comments on various literatures related with the marketing activities that can be implemented by a firm to improve their business performance. Marketing Strategy: According to Ferrell and Hartline (2010) Marketing Strategy is both art and science where the firm finds or plans ways to deliver their value by fulfilling the needs wants of their potential customers. This helps in determining the marketing mix and analyzing the competitive advantage of the firm by implementing and presenting new ideas so as to satisfy their customers. Employing strategies helps in increasing the level of sales by branding, advertising promotion. So as per the authors (Ferrell Hartline, 2010) the points that are to be taken under consideration by a firm to properly establish a marketing strategy are discussed below: Firstly, a proper marketing plan is to be established as it helps in providing the necessary detailed outline to carry out the marketing program for a firm. As per the authors ,the marketing plan is not at all similar to a business plan; but a business plan contains a marketing plan along with financial, capital and human resource. Therefore, the core means to accomplish the desired goals objectives of an organisations marketing strategy is through its well defined marketing plan. Secondly, a firm must aim in seeking marketing opportunities available by collecting and analyzing the information. The technique used for data collection analysis is through situation analysis; which is a process of data collection that describes the current future issues trends that can have an effect on the internal, customer, external environments respectively (Ferrell Hartline, 2010). This helps in making the strategy by identifying the environment of the business is dealing in and analyze whether the plan will be beneficiary or not before implementation. Then, a Marketing expansion is to be made by identifying in the best interest of the their customers using marketing tools like segmentation targeting and this can be calculated by identifying the customers buying process because it will help the managers in realizing who are their customers what exactly do the customers want (Ferrell Hartline, 2010). Finally, the firm has to implement the plan but must execute certainÃ activities to increase employee motivation and commitment in achieving the desired goals and objectives effectively by controlling evaluating the marketing strategy as per the plan proposed. Therefore, implementation of marketing strategy is incomplete without a control mechanism (Ferrell Hartline, 2010). The key in effective strategic controlling is by maintain an appropriate communication system and the managers must make business decisions as per the interest of the organisation and its customers. Thus, marketing strategy is a never ending process making it important for the managers to monitor and evaluate the outcomes of the plan that has being implemented for future benefits as it can allow the firm to concentrate on its limited available resources seek their opportunities to increase sales and achieve a competitive edge. By this we can say that strategy plays a key role for a company to be successful in a way that can obtain benefit against its competitors. Analysis of the environment: According to Richard Lynch (2006), analysis of the business environment for an organisation is certainly an important part for this report, as in a much broader sense it helps to describe everything and everyone outside the firm. This includes customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, government and social Institutions. The following will briefly explain about few marketing analysis that are to be considered for gaining a competitive advantage. The Strategic Analysis is a part of the environmental analysis that contributes in strategically analyzing of the environment by firstly, measuring the Market Size which will enable a firm in assisting and developing a strategy task, then the Market Growth for comprehending how much the market has grown over the years as the growth mainly relates to the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives lastly, the Market Share to realize how much portion does the firm consume take benefit within the market in comparison with its major competitors (Lyn ch, 2006). But for this to be applied the market must first be defined properly meaning the company must realise exactly in which particular market or markets it is entering. The PESTEL Analysis basically defines the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental Legal factors that can affect the firm as it offers aÃ valuable starting point of the overall environment surrounding an organisation (Lynch, 2006). Though the PESTEL analysis is depend on past events and experience, but the analysis can be used as a forecast of the future by the managers. Although, this analysis is effective but must be updated on a regular basis as over time the lifestyles, regulations, culture and technology keeps on changing. The Degree of turbulence at the general level of environmental analysis considers the basic conditions surrounding the organisation (Lynch, 2006). Special attention needs to be directed to the nature and strength of the forces driving the change in the dynamics of the environment and the environmental forces that immediate the organisation can be measured according to firstly the Changeability which is the degree of the environment that is likely to change the Predictability which is the degree of those changes that can be predicted. Lastly, the managers of an organisation must determine the Key Factors of success that helps the organisation in achieving their main goals objectives as the resources, skills and attributes of an organisation that are vital to bring success in the market place (Lynch, 2006). Usually calculating measuring the environmental analysis mentioned by the author Lynch; takes a lot of time money of the company in determining the industry market by statistical tools which is not accurate making it risky also based on the external factors that keeps on changing making it difficult for every firm to apply the analysis up to its full potential. But, still using Environmental Analysis helps the managers in making effective business marketing decisions by determining the market industry in which the organisation deals in identifying the essentials parts that are worth exploring to recognize the success that the firm has by gaining potential for customer satisfaction differentiating itself from its competitors. The Analysis of the IndustryÃ¢â¬â¢s Competitive Strategy: Competitiveness of a firm is its capability to achieve its targets. These targets are likely to be conveyed in a range of position depending on the context (Barney 2002). From abusiness perspective, a competitive firm requires to survive in the market and achieve the desired market share andÃ profitability. The success of a competitive firm can be calculated by obtaining their current position in the defined market. According to Michael E. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s (1985), the best model in realizing a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s current situation is by PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces model. This identifies the competitive strategy that an operating business has aims at defeating its rival companies. According to Porter (1985), the guidelines of rivalry are characterized into Ã¢â¬Å"five competitive forcesÃ¢â¬ . These competitive forces are entry to the new competitors, threat of substitutes, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, and rivalry among the existing competitors. Porter (1985 ) further explains that the industry arrangement is reasonably stable, but can altered over time as the industry progresses, and the strong points of these competitive forces varies from one industry to another. Based on this model thereÃ¢â¬â¢s ahelp in analyzing the bargaining power of buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s which willeffect the price that a firm can charge.The power of suppliers defines the costs of raw materials; the intensity of rivalry influences prices of competing. The threat of entry places a boundary on prices, and outlines the investment vital to put offnew competitors; Threats from substitutes usually pose a threat whenever there is a technological or low-cost breakthrough. Chaffey (2002) supports PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s model forces as it still provides a useable framework for studyingthe threats arising. The value of Porters model enables managers to think about the current industry that is in a structured and easy-to-understand system for further analysis. But, the above modelÃ¢â¬â¢s framework is fundamentally fixed, while the competitive environment in general is constantly changing and it does not apply to a nonprofit type of organisation (Lynch, 2006). It also assumes that the buyers have no major significance than the aspect of the micro-environment; But the customer are always considered to be more important than other aspects of competitive strategy development process. Thus in order to solve these issues the SWOT analysis can be implemented (Lynch, 2006). As the SWOT analysis determines the strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for a firm with in the environment it operates. Even though the model has been questioned with few critical remarks but for the managers of any major firm this model still demonstrates to be a useful for a competitive strategic analysis within the industry. So, there is no doubt that this is the best model that aims at defeating the major competitors in the market. Customer Relationship Analysis: According to Nigel Hill, Greg Roche Rachel Allen (2007), Customer Satisfaction is all about how a firm succeeds in maintaining their customers as top of their agenda. This further identifies the 3rÃ¢â¬â¢s of customer loyalty which are Retention, Related Sales Referrals. The 3rÃ¢â¬â¢s are basically the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior that must staying longer, chose to use more of the services/products by a firm. This can be further useful by helping in noticing the customers Attitudes Behavior towards the firm and prove to be effective for the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement of their goals in satisfying their customers. Thus, to improve customer satisfaction organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s should focus on its resources on areas where they are least meeting the essential of their customer requirements. But as per the authors (Hill, Roche Allen, 2007) Ã¢â¬ËThe profitability of customers increases the longer you keep themÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning is that the value of a customer typically increases over time by identifying a customer lifetime value by the following points. An Acquisition is a process of acquiring customers occurs wholly in the first year with a functioning business organisation i.e. before just after becoming a customer. The Base Profit is the difference between sales revenue earned by a particular good or service and the cost to produce or provide that good or service. The Revenue growth will increase when the customers are satisfied as a satisfied customer have a tendency to buy or use more of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s products or services. Customer satisfaction also leads to Cost Savings as long term customers will cost lesser in providing services as they became familiar with the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s techniques are more likely to get what they expect. In Referrals a highly satisfied customers will recommend and even applaud the product or service to their family friends which thus brings more customer by eliminating the cost of acquisition of a customer. The long term customers who are satisfied with what the organisation has to offer will be also ready to pay a Price Premium meaning a higher price since they trust the product or service which results in adding value of the firm. According to Lynch (2006) The Internal Analysis is very crucial as it adds further value for an organisation which in turn is beneficiary for them if they take time in analyzing their business performance through which they can improve the overall customer satisfactory level. Hencethe firm must make in-depth analysis of their departments to determine which areas are to be immediately improved. Overall, it is very important a responsibility of an organisation to establish a well refined relationship with their customer in such a way that satisfies them and results in earning more profits establishing a competitive edge on a long term basis. The Market Segmentation: According to Sally Dibb Lyndon Simki (1996), the market segmentation aims to identify groups of customers with similar needs and then the firm tries to select their segments by targeting thus determining how to position their products/services that helps to appeal in the targeted market of a region. This over all helps the firm in realizing which type of consumers are there and whether they prefer or like the services/products that the firm has to offer and this can be measured by making a research and getting at most possible feedback from the existing customers. The Segmentation process of a market segmentation comprises of three diverse portions namely Segmentation, Targeting Positioning. It is very important to fully understand how different can the markets be segmented before making a final decision. It is clear that there are three points in the process at which assistance is defiantly necessary. As there is a need to recognize the categories of factors that will contribute t o a positive result. During the analysis, it is important to create the qualities that emerging segments display. After the segmentation output has been confirmed, direction is needed for the criteria to review the desirability of the different segments. (Dibb Simki, 1996) The most commonly used way is arranged in few steps, that tells that segments should exhibit measurability, so that segment size andÃ prospective can be measured; substantiality, so that the segments are sizeable to be profitable; accessibility, to reach the customers in the segments; actionability, letting segments to assist successfully with marketing programmes and lastly; stability, so that resources can be safely financed (Kotler, 1994). This is clearly aimed at managers during the segmentation process, as it shows features that are in contradiction to emerging segments that can be matched. The problem concerning with market segmentation compared to the authors comments (Dibb Simki, 1996) is the fact that marketers sometimes fail to produce a usable segmentation answer as it is very difficult for them to analysis information that is constantly changing making the data material collected not precise. On top of that, this analysis is mainly based on statistical information which is at certain point difficult to calculate accurate information as statistical data are also based on the closest assumption value. The Marketing Mix also plays an important role as it identifies the product/service of an organisation, then determine at what price to sell the goods and services, later defines the place which is suitable for production and announce effective promotion methods to bring more customers (Hill, Roche Allen, 2007). In order to obtain market segmentation success the managers should become critical about the quality of information they are receiving as it plays a vital role for implementing a marketing strategy by questioning the source of data and considering when it was collected. The method of data collection should be correct, durable and must be up-to-date as soon as possible. Marketing ethics: As per Bodo B. Schlegelmilch (1998), marketing ethics is an ethical dilemma that deals with relating the marketing function. The ethical issues usually arise in marketing situations for a firm. This part thus relates to how a firm should make ethical marketing decisions to obtain the satisfaction of the society must focus on the ethical issues that connect with analyzing the market opportunities that are available. Marketing has been criticized for hurting the interest of customers, society and the environment in the presentation of the marketing mix by stimulating societal moral decay, endorsing materialism and affecting the environment. Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing ethics is thus alarmed with the moral principles and values which guide the marketingÃ decisions and activities in an ethical mannerÃ¢â¬ (Jobber, 2010). The assistance of both the primary stakeholders (Customers, Employees, Suppliers, Shareholder other investors) secondary stakeholders (Media, Special-Interest Groups Govern ment Institutions) is important to support the ethical activities of marketing practices (Schlegelmilch, 1998). But the most important factor for the reason that ethics are to be considered by the marketing managers are so to satisfy their organisation customers and employees (Schlegelmilch, 1998) as the customers are the people who buys the goods service which runs the business employees are those people that works for the company and are determined by their attitudes towards the jobs to keep the business running as well. While all other factors are directly or indirectly related with these two factors making it utmost important to satisfy them so as to achieve the desired goals objectives. The Marketing activities has an impact on the society and the environment as a whole. Therefore the managers of the organisation should behave responsibly within the best interest of those who will be affected. In conclusion, marketing ethics is an important factor to be considered, despite the challenges and uncertainty a company faces with its applications. Conclusion This chapter presents the theoretical background of the major areas for marketing techniques of the research. The aimis to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings on marketing techniques for theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topicas the reviews are secondary sources and do not require any new or original experimental work.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
College Writing in a Democratic and Digital Society :: Education College Technology Essays
College Writing in a Democratic and Digital Society Citizens of the United States spend obscene amounts of money to get a quality college education. For example, Rhetoric classes at Oakland University are costing each student about $600 to take for one semester. What are students getting for their money? One way to really make this class part of the college experience, and worth the high cost, would be to involve multiculturalism. Writing about and listening to other peoples personal experiences can help students learn about and better understand other cultures. This is important because it can help students learn about each other, themselves and the rest of the world. By learning about other cultures students may be able to break down existing barriers and expand their horizons. Rhetoric classes have become much more advanced in the area of technology. Technology has advanced all over the world, including in the classroom. Now the question is how do we use this technology to help better our education as well as our society. We need t o use this technology as a tool for literacy (Camper). Rhetoric teachers across the nation are taking different approaches to meeting the goal of spreading multiculturalism. A Professor of Rhetoric and Composition, from the University of Texas at Austin, named Maxine Hairston takes an interesting approach to teaching writing. She describes this style of teaching in an article entitled "Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing." Hairston is a strong believer in spreading multiculturalism in education. She believes in a teaching style that allows students to express themselves freely through writing. Through this exchange of ideas, values, opinions, traditions and personal experiences students recognize and relate to other cultures and backgrounds. Hairston states that "these students bring with them a kaleidoscope of experiences, values, dialects, and cultural backgrounds that we want to respond to positively, using every resource we can to help them adapt to the academic world and become active participants in it" (Hairston). Basically, what Hairston wants to do is develop a curriculum that is not based on text book drills, but rather on the experience s of the students in the class. However, there are many students like myself, that spent all of their High School years in an environment with very little to no cultural diversity. I grew up in a neighborhood where I was surrounded by people that all shared a similar nationality, ethnic background, and even social class.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Brutus in the play Julius Caesar by Shakespeare Essay
Marcus Brutus is a character in William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Julius Caesar which is based on the true story of events in Rome more than 2,000 years ago. CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s loyal friend, PortiaÃ¢â¬â¢s loving husband, and a noble Roman. However, he leads other conspirators and murders Caesar. People often question, is Brutus a hero or a villain? Brutus is not a hero nor a villain because he is not totally bad or good. Brutus doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t kill Caesar for power, but the good of Rome. Brutus is not a villain because he trusts Antony and refuses to murder him. Brutus is a villain because he is overconfident and therefore their actions fail. There is no human that is totally bad or good in story nor real life. Brutus loves Caesar but kills him because he believes that Caesar is not a good leader and that CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s ambitions are dangerous to the future of Rome. The decision to kill Caesar is not easy for Brutus and his wife sees that. Portia tells Brutus she believes he has Ã¢â¬Å"some sick offence within your mindÃ¢â¬ (II.i.267-270) and that is why he can not sleep. The fact that he can not sleep shows that he is thinking about the murder and not comfortable with it. Also, he will not share his thoughts with his wife, even though she believes that Ã¢â¬Å"which by the right and virtue of my place/ I ought to know ofÃ¢â¬ (II.i.267-270). When Brutus says Ã¢â¬Å"Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.Ã¢â¬ (III.ii.26) he means that he believes his actions are for the benefit of the Republic not to improve his position. During BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢s speech at CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral, he reveals his motive Ã¢â¬Å"I honour him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him.Ã¢â¬ (III.ii.26) He tells the Romans they are better with Ceasar dead since if they would Ã¢â¬Å"rather Caesar were living and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all freemen?Ã¢â¬ (III.ii.21-24). Brutus believes that Caesar would have turned the freemen of Rome into his slaves and therefore was not the best leader for Rome. Cassius must also convince Brutus that CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s murder is good. Cassius tells Brutus a story about a day in the winter where they swam in a river and Caesar almost drowns. Cassius uses this story to show Brutus that Caesar is just a man, not worthy of his Ã¢â¬Å"name being sounded more than yours?Ã¢â¬ (I.ii.143) Cassius also tell Brutus that the fault Ã¢â¬Å"is not in our stars/ But in ourselvesÃ¢â¬ (I.ii.140-141) which sounds like Brutus has a choice about the future of Rome. Brutus is not a villain because he trusts Antony and refuses to murder him which shows that Brutus isnÃ¢â¬â¢t interested in gaining power and he has a good heart. Brutus believes that Ã¢â¬Å"For Antony is but aÃ limb of Caesar. /LetÃ¢â¬â¢s be sacrificers, but not butchersÃ¢â¬ (II.i.165-166) and that without Caesar Anthony is not be a threat. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"And for Marc Antony, think not of him,/ For he can do no more than CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s arm/ When CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s head is offÃ¢â¬ (II.i.180-183). He does not want to murder innocent people, because he believes the Ã¢â¬Å"Our course will seem too bloodyÃ¢â¬ (II.i.162). Brutus is a villain because he is overconfident and does not listen to the words of Cassius. His overconfidence is shown many times. Brutus shows his over confidence when talks about Cicero. On the day Ides of March, Brutus was discussing with other conspirator about if Cicero should go with them. Although other conspirator want Cicero to join them, Brutus donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with that, he said, Ã¢â¬Å"O, name him not. Let us not break with him,/For he will never follow anythingÃ¢â¬ (II.i.156-157). Later, when Cassius is talking about how he fears Antony, Brutus says Ã¢â¬Å"And for Mark Antony, think not of him,/For he can do no more than CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s arm/When CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s head is off.Ã¢â¬ (II.i.188-190). Also he believes that Anthony can speak at the funeral since whatever Antony speaks Ã¢â¬Å"I will myself into the pulpit first/ And and show the reason of our CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death./ What Antony shall speak, I will protest.Ã¢â¬ (III.i.237-239) and the people will believe him. In conclusion, Brutus is not a hero and not a villain. He kills his best friend, but it is for the good of Rome. Therefore he is not a villain. He trusts Antony, but that trust is the reason their plans to prevent Rome becoming a republic fails. Therefore he is not a hero. Although Antony calls Brutus Ã¢â¬Å"the noblest Roman of them all.Ã¢â¬ , he is overconfident. And this overconfidence leads to his suicide. Is difficult to say he is a hero or a villain. Because if he change his action, the history will change. Once the history change, our life today will change, too. One thing we learn is, no matter BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢s action is good or bad, he try his best and do what he believe is right to make himself and other people a better life.
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