Friday, May 22, 2020

Overview of The Seven Years War (1756 - 63)

In Europe, the Seven Years War was fought between an alliance of France, Russia, Sweden, Austria, and Saxony against Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain from 1756–1763. However, the war had an international element, particularly as Britain and France fought one another for domination of North America and India. As such, it has been called the first ‘world war.’ The military theater for the Seven Years War in North America is called the ‘French-Indian’ war, and in Germany, the Seven Years War has been known as the ‘Third Silesian War.’ It is notable for the adventures of the king of Prussia Frederick the Great (1712–1786), a man whose major early successes and later tenacity were matched by one of the most incredible pieces of luck ever to end a major conflict in history. Origins: The Diplomatic Revolution The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748, but to many, it was only an armistice, a temporary halt to the war. Austria had lost Silesia to Prussia, and was angry at both Prussia—for taking the wealthy land—and her own allies for not making sure it was returned. She started weighing up her alliances and seeking out alternatives. Russia grew worried about the growing power of Prussia, and wondered about waging a ‘preventative’ war to stop them. Prussia, pleased at having gained Silesia, believed it would take another war to keep it, and hoped to gain more territory during it. In the 1750s, as tensions rose in North America between British and French colonists competing for the same land, Britain acted to try and prevent the ensuing war destabilizing Europe by altering its alliances. These actions, and a change of heart by Frederick II of Prussia—known by his many later admirers as ‘Frederick the Great’—triggered what has been called the ‘Diplomatic Revolution,’ as the previous system of alliances broke down and a new one replaced it, with Austria, France, and Russia allied against Britain, Prussia ,and Hanover. Europe: Frederick Gets His Retaliation in First In May 1756, Britain and France officially went to war, triggered by French attacks on Minorca; the recent treaties stopped other nations being sucked in to help. But with the new alliances in place, Austria was poised to strike and take Silesia back, and Russia was planning a similar initiative, so Frederick II of Prussia—aware of the plotting—initiated conflict in an attempt to gain an advantage. He wanted to defeat Austria before France and Russia could mobilize; he also wanted to seize more land. Frederick thus attacked Saxony in August 1756 to try and break its alliance with Austria, seize its resources and set up his planned 1757 campaign. He took the capital, accepting their surrender, incorporating their troops, and sucking huge funds out of the state. Prussian forces then advanced into Bohemia, but they were unable to win the victory that would keep them there and so quickly retreated to Saxony. They advanced back again in early 1757, winning the battle of Prague on May 6, 1757, thanks in no small part to Frederick’s subordinates. However, the Austrian army had retreated into Prague, which Prussia besieged. Luckily for the Austrians, Frederick was defeated on June 18th by a relief force at the Battle of Kolin and forced to retreat out of Bohemia. Europe: Prussia Under Attack Prussia now appeared to be attacked from all sides, as a French force defeated the Hanoverians under an English general—the King of England was also the King of Hanover—occupied Hanover and marched to Prussia, while Russia came in from the East and defeated other Prussians, although they followed this up by retreating and only occupied East Prussia the next January. Austria moved on Silesia, and Sweden, new to the Franco-Russo-Austrian alliance, also attacked. For a while Frederick sank into self pity, but responded with a display of arguably brilliant generalship, defeating a Franco-German army at Rossbach on November 5th, and an Austrian one at Leuthenon December 5th; both of which had outnumbered him greatly. Neither victory was enough to force an Austrian (or French) surrender. From now on the French would target a resurgent Hanover, and never fought Frederick again, while he moved quickly, defeating one enemy army and then another before they could effectively team up, using his advantage of shorter, internal lines of movement. Austria soon learned not to fight Prussia in the large, open areas which favored Prussia’s superior movement, although this was constantly reduced by casualties. Britain began to harass the French coast to try and draw troops away, while Prussia pushed the Swedes out. Europe: Victories and Defeats The British ignored the surrender of their previous Hanoverian army and returned to the region, intent on keeping France at bay. This new army was commanded by a close ally of Frederick’s (his brother-in-law) and kept French forces busy in the west and away from both Prussia and the French colonies. They won the battle of Minden in 1759, and made a series of strategic maneuvers to tie up the enemy armies, although were constrained by having to send reinforcements to Frederick. Frederick attacked Austria, but was outmaneuvered during a siege and forced to retreat into Silesia. He then fought a draw with the Russians at Zorndorf, but took heavy casualties (a third of his army); he was then beaten by Austria at Hochkirch, losing a third again. By the end of the year he had cleared Prussia and Silesia of enemy armies, but was greatly weakened, unable to pursue any more grand offensives; Austria was cautiously pleased. By now, all belligerents had spent huge sums. Frederick was brought to battle again at Battle of Kunersdorf in August 1759, but was heavily defeated by an Austro-Russian army. He lost 40% of the troops present, although he managed to keep the remainder of his army in operation. Thanks to Austrian and Russian caution, delays and disagreements, their advantage was not pressed and Frederick avoided being forced to surrender. In 1760 Frederick failed in another siege, but won minor victories against the Austrians, although at Torgau he won because of his subordinates rather than anything he did. France, with some Austrian support, tried to push for peace. By the end of 1761, with enemies wintering on Prussian land, things were going badly for Frederick, whose once highly trained army was now bulked out with hastily gathered recruits, and whose numbers were well below those of the enemy armies. Frederick was increasingly unable to perform the marches and out-flankings which had bought him success, and was on the defensive. Had Frederick’s enemies overcome their seeming inability to co-ordinate—thanks to xenophobia, dislike, confusion, class differences and more—Frederick might already have been beaten. In control of only a part of Prussia, Frederick’s efforts looked doomed, despite Austria being in a desperate financial position. Europe: Death as Prussian Savior Frederick hoped for a miracle, and he got one. The implacably anti-Prussian Tsarina of Russia died, to be succeeded by Tsar Peter III (1728–1762). He was favorable to Prussia and made immediate peace, sending troops to help Frederick. Although Peter was assassinated quickly afterwards—not before trying to invade Denmark—his wife Catherine the Great (1729–1796) kept the peace agreements, although she withdrew Russian troops which had been helping Frederick. This freed Frederick to win more engagements against Austria. Britain took the chance to end their alliance with Prussia—thanks partly to mutual antipathy between Frederick and Britain’s new Prime Minister—declaring war on Spain and attacking their Empire instead. Spain invaded Portugal, but were halted with British aid. The Global War Although British troops did fight on the continent, slowly increasing in numbers, Britain had preferred to send financial support to Frederick and Hanover—subsidies larger than any before in British history—rather than fight in Europe. This was in order to send troops and ships elsewhere in the world. The British had been involved in fighting in North America since 1754, and the government under William Pitt (1708–1778) decided to further prioritize the war in America, and hit the rest of France’s imperial possessions, using their powerful navy to harass France where she was weakest. In contrast, France focused on Europe first, planning an invasion of Britain, but this possibility was ended by the Battle of Quiberon Bay in 1759, shattering France’s remaining Atlantic naval power and their ability to reinforce America. England had effectively won the ‘French-Indian’ war in North America by 1760, but peace there had to wait until the othe r theaters were settled. In 1759 a small, opportunistic British force had seized Fort Louis on the Senegal River in Africa, acquiring plenty of valuables and suffering no casualties. Consequently, by the end of the year, all French trading posts in Africa were British. Britain then attacked France in the West Indies, taking the rich island of Guadeloupe and moving on to other wealth producing targets. The British East India Company retaliated against a local leader and attacked French interests in India and, aided greatly by the British Royal Navy dominating the Indian Ocean as it had the Atlantic, ejected France from the area. By war’s end, Britain had a vastly increased Empire, France a much reduced one. Britain and Spain also went to war, and Britain shocked their new enemy by seizing the hub of their Caribbean operations, Havana, and a quarter of the Spanish Navy. Peace None of Prussia, Austria, Russia or France had been able to win the decisive victories needed to force their enemies to surrender, but by 1763 the war in Europe had drained the belligerents cofferes and they sought peace. Austria was facing bankruptcy and feeling unable to proceed without Russia, France was defeated abroad and unwilling to fight on to support Austria, and England was keen to cement global success and end the drain on their resources. Prussia was intent on forcing a return to the state of affairs before the war, but as peace negotiations dragged on Frederick sucked as much as he could out of Saxony, including kidnapping girls and relocating them in depopulated areas of Prussia. The Treaty of Paris was signed on February 10th, 1763, settling issues between Britain, Spain and France, humiliating the latter, former greatest power in Europe. Britain gave Havana back to Spain, but received Florida in return. France compensated Spain by giving her Louisiana, while England got all French lands in North America east of the Mississippi except New Orleans. Britain also gained much of the West Indies, Senegal, Minorca and land in India. Other possessions changed hands, and Hanover was secured for the British. On February 10th, 1763 the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Prussia and Austria confirmed the status quo: Prussia kept Silesia, and secured its claim to ‘great power’ status, while Austria kept Saxony. As historian Fred Anderson pointed out, millions had been spent and tens of thousands had died, but nothing had changed. Consequences Britain was left as the dominant world power, albeit deeply in debt, and the cost had introduced new problems in the relationship with its colonists—the situation would go on to cause the American Revolutionary War, another global conflict that would end in a British defeat. France was on the road to economic disaster and revolution. Prussia had lost 10% of its population but, crucially for Frederick’s reputation, had survived the alliance of Austria, Russia and France which had wanted to reduce or destroy it, although many historians claim Frederick is given too much credit for this as outside factors allowed it. Reforms followed in many of the belligerents government and military, with Austrian fears that Europe would be on the road to a disastrous militarism were well founded. The failure of Austria to reduce Prussia to second rate power doomed it to a competition between the two for the future of Germany, benefiting Russia and France, and leading to a Prussian-centered Germany empire. The war also saw a shift in the balance of diplomacy, with Spain and Holland, reduced in importance, replaced by two new Great Powers: Prussia and Russia. Saxony was ruined. Sources and Further Reading Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: the Seven Years War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766.  New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2007.  Baugh, Daniel A. The Global Seven Years War 1754–1763: Britain and France in a Great Power Contest. London: Routledge, 2011.Riley, James C. The Seven Years War and the Old Regime in France: The Economic and Financial Toll. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.Szabo, Franz A. J. The Seven Years War in Europe: 1756–1763. London: Routledge, 2013.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Jane Austen s Dracula As Well As Pride And Prejudice

Women are held to different standards than men. Our culture is encompassed by prejudices concerning women in society, especially in regards to social gender roles of men and women. In Victorian society, it was a socially accepted concept that women were inferior to men in all aspects with the exception of childbearing and raising. A woman’s personal choices were and are still subject to the review of modern society, and women are continually ostracized for veering from what is considered socially acceptable. This criticism severely restricts what a woman is â€Å"allowed† to and â€Å"not allowed† to do. This can be seen in works of literature dating back to the Victorian era, such as Brahm Stoker’s Dracula as well as Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. Women are not allowed to express their sexual desires. Through the two main female characters in Dracula, Mina and Lucy, Stoker shines light on his sexist opinion of the role of women in society by illustra ting both the ideal model of what a woman should strive to be as well as the repercussions if a woman were to veer from this accepted role. According to LITCRITXXX, Dracula is among the most strikingly erotic works published in Britain during the Victorian era...its conscientious representation of female voluptuousness and sexual appetite as a manifest disgrace is...consciously hypocritical† (xxxxxxxxxx 16). Women, although sexualized, objectified, and undermined, are still disgraced for their behavior if it is different thanShow MoreRelatedCause and Impact Analysis on the Main Character’s Suffering in Elizabeth Gilbert’s Novel Eat, Pray, Love7348 Words   |  30 PagesImaginative literature is the writing contains fact explanation or real people life and history which aim at conveying knowledge to article, history book, dictionaries and text book. On the other hand, imaginative literature aims an entertaining as well as giving information. In this case the auth or tries to tell about his though, ideas and feeling. A novel is a book length story in prose, whose author tries to create the sense that while we need, we experience actual life, (Kennedy, 1983:180)

Sunday, May 10, 2020

A Thousand Splendid Suns Essays - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 664 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/09/14 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Essay One As an avid reader I enjoy different types of books. A Thousand Splendid Suns written by Khaled Hosseini is one of my favorite books because of its accurate depiction of Afghanistan after the defeat of the Soviet invasion. Unlike the Hosseini story of The Kite Runner, A Thousand Splendid Suns focuses on the difficulties that women in Afghanistan faced when the Taliban came to power. The story revolves around two women with a substantial age difference and the personal pain they suffer in their marriages to the same husband. Hosseini portrays the change in Afghanistan for women when the Taliban came to power and the strict rules they had to abide by. This piece of literature unsettled me because it was hard to believe that the Taliban were enforcing such discriminatory while such rules are not prescribed in the Qu’ran. Both of my parents are from Pakistan, the neighboring country of Afghanistan and every other summer I visit Pakistan and always saw a large percentage of Afghanis in Peshawar, my Mother’s hometown. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Thousand Splendid Suns: Essays" essay for you Create order I never understood fully why they were there until I read A Thousand Splendid Suns, and realized that they were fleeing from the harsh rules of the Taliban. It was hard to understand that in a country so close to where my relatives live there was an extreme Islamic group enforcing cruel laws to all of the citizens. Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns has opened my eyes to the depressing and stifling conditions of Afghanistan, especially for women. Hopefully now that the United States and its allies have rid the country of the rule of the Taliban, Afghanistan can serve as a peaceful home for all Afghanis especially those who had to flee their homes. Hopefully the sequel to A Thousand Splendid Suns will talk about the return of the Afghani refugees and Afghanistan practicing the correct version of Islam with equal rights for women. Essay Two I come from a family who has traveled significantly around the world. I have learned about different cultures, religions, and traditions. From Italy to Pakistan I have experienced life as a tourist. I have made friends in each country but my closest friends were in Pakistan. Since both of my parents are from Pakistan I travel there every other summer to visit my relatives. My cousins and I would enjoy playing cricket with the boys from the village of Wazirabad. After the cricket games we would all get a soft drink and talk. Many of the village boys would ask me questions about living in the United States and I would feel slightly embarrassed. I would shift the spotlight from me to them and ask them questions about their family, friends and their school. The younger boys would have interesting stories about school where as the older boys who were my age would not mention school. When I asked them they told me they did not attend school and instead worked during the day. I could see in their face that they were bothered by not going to school and I felt sad on the inside. These friends of mine were my age and instead of going to school like I do they must work to support their family. After learning more about their lives, my perspective of education changed immediately. I never disliked school but sometimes I would rant about having to wake up early or having to complete a homework assignment. Now I realize how important my education truly is and how kids my age in different countries have to wake up early to work instead of go to school. I do not take my education for granted anymore. Ever since that summer trip to Pakistan my world has revolved around two things. My close relationship with my family and friends, and my education. I strongly agree with the British philosopher, Bertrand Russell when he said, â€Å"The good life is inspired by love and guided by knowledge. †

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of The Artwork What Do You Do T Mbeki

The artwork entitled ‘What Do You Do T. Mbeki?’ by the artist Rose Kgoete was created for the Mapula Embroidery project. Mapula means â€Å"mother of rain† and this project was intended to address the awful poverty among women in Winterveld, an area North of Pretoria in South Africa. These women were encouraged to work on subject matters that were not usually addressed in public; hence this was a way for them to speak out. The image by Rose is a representation of social and economic problems affecting the people of South Africa and the image was created when Thabo Mbeki was the president of South Africa hence posing the question, which is the title of the artwork. The artwork is in 2D and shaped more like a square with rough edges. It contains colorful and bright figures ranging from the primary colors red, blue and yellow to secondary colors such as green, purple and orange. The artist uses thick, thin, straight, rough and diagonal lines to allow some figures like the clothes on the human figures to stand out. This artwork is made by a combination of figures that together build the story and has a focal point, which is emphasized by the use of a large picture of T Mbeki. Most of these figures are accompanied by descriptive captions. These attributes allow unity of the artwork making it easier for the viewer to look at the figures and relate them to the central subject matter. The contrast expressed by these colors has a rainbow effect that is very attractive and can easily

Minocycline and Public Misinformation Free Essays

The potential role of minocycline in limiting neurological stroke damage is a widely studied arena, as evident by the numerous studies conducted on the topic and the implications of these findings are widely circulated in the scientific and public community using the print and broadcast media. But, it is highly unlikely that the common media would religiously reflect the findings based on the scientific research as potentiated by the ‘knowledge gap’ that exists between them. In the light of this statement, there is a general aim to investigate the â€Å"knowledge gaps† that may have been loss from information transfer of the technical work to that of the more popular broad print media. We will write a custom essay sample on Minocycline and Public Misinformation or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Recent Study Conducted on Minocycline Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative is more popular for its an anti-inflammatory activity rather than its antibiotic effect. Minocycline alleviates the blood brain barrier disruption by decreasing the activity of microglia and metalloproteinase, reduction of edema and hemorrhage and reduce ischemia. The specificity of mitocycline as inhibitor of microglial activity by limiting p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase makes it a potential drug for neurological disorders. Lampl et al. (2007) conducted an open label, evaluator blinded study on the monocycline treatment in acute stroke. This scientific approach diverted from the normal â€Å"animal models† and the â€Å"in vivo and the in vitro approach† classic method of studying drug medication effect by using actual human models. One hundred fifty two stroke patients were used for the study; 74 received minocycline treatment [(200 mg/day/5 days; start: 6-24 hr after stroke onset)] and 77 received placebo. The NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel index were assessed for day 7, 30 and 90 (7 and 90 for NIHSS). Data analysis (covariance and two tailed   t-test) were carried out using SPSS statistical analysis software. Results indicate that there was significant reduction NIHSS score at day 90 for monocycline patients compared that of the placebo patients. The reduction was apparent from baseline up to last day of treatment. Barthel index was significantly reduced at day 7 till the end of the treatment and mRS difference started at day 2 onwards. Covariance (co-variance: age, presence of peptic ulcer, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) , sulfonylurea(SU) were performed again for NHSS test and results show significant difference between the groups with mean difference increase for covariates. The study indicates that the administration of minocycline at acute stage of stroke using five day treatment therapeutic onset window of 24 hr is effective in alleviating stroke damages. The â€Å"24 hr therapeutic onset† is based on results of previous studies stating that edema peaks at 24 to 48 hr following ischemia and inhibition at this timescale of apoptopic pathway is most effective. The limitations of the study are the six hr post-stroke administration, the oral medication, and small sampling units. Confirmation is still needed for this study. The Public Mis-Conveyance of the Minocycline Efficacy Last October 27, 2007, Thomas H. Maugh II of Los Angeles Times wrote â€Å"[Minocycline] taken within 24 hours, the drug is found to help reduce disabling effects in a patient’s body and brain.† Thomas H. Maugh based his article on the aforementioned study above. However there are discrepancies that can be found between the article and the actual study which he allegedly used as the fountain of information on minocycline efficiency. First, he intimated that the drug should be administered within the first three hours. He also forgot to mention that the dosage administered was 200 mg.There was nothing in the journal that said that the drug must be administered at within 3 hr. In fact, the therapeutic window indicated in the scientific journal was â€Å"within 24 hr† and the experimental method involved â€Å"six hr post stroke†. Second, he elicited the â€Å"secondary† opinion from the scientific community specifically Dr. Steven Pacia of Lenox Hospital, Dr. John Marler of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Dr. Raymond Swanson of University of California. There is nothing wrong with eliciting opinions from known field experts on neurology. But the fact is that he should have elicited ‘primary’ source of information from the Israeli scientists and not from those who are not really involved the conducted study. Maugh also wrote that subjects for the study excluded â€Å"those who had already shown signs of recovery.† There was no line on the methodology of the paper mentioning this. He also failed to indicated chronic renal failure as a category in the exclusion of study. (This is very important since there is strong association of inefficacy of oral administration in chronic renal patients). He also wrote that Lampl said that the improvement was apparent within a week. It is a misnomer of information; there was ‘significant’ improvement from Day 90 and not Day 7. He also wrote that the minocycline receivers did ‘4x’ times better. He forgot to mention if at what scale this 4x is. Is it from the baseline or is it a comparison to the placebo group? Lampl’s group cited that the study must be performed on a larger scale to attest its efficacy. Maugh’s misnomers and some information deletions may have mislead the reader into believing that the minocycline is proven and tested as effective. Health information to the public should be delivered as precise as possible. Journalist should be more careful about what they write because they are open to misinterpretation by the public. What would happen if a desperate stroke patient took this information seriously and drank more than 200 mg per day? Results are inconclusive on this. However, it should be deeply noted that, in the end, the public is the one who suffers from this misinformation. Works Cited Lampl, Y., Boaz, M. Gilad, R., M. Loberboym, Dabby, R., Rapoport, A., Anca-hershowitz, M., and M. Sadeh. â€Å"Minocycline Treatment in Acute Stroke.† Neurology.   1609 (2007): 1404-1410. Maugh, H. Thomas. â€Å"Antibiotic Limits Stroke Damage, Study Finds.† Los Angeles Times. 2 October 2007.       How to cite Minocycline and Public Misinformation, Essay examples

The Criticism of Jean Piagets Theories. free essay sample

The Criticism of Jean Piagets theories. While conducting intelligence tests on children, Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget began to investigate how children think. According to Piaget, childrens thought processes change as they mature physically and interact with the world around them. Piaget believed children develop schema, or mental models, to represent the world. As children learn, they expand and modify their schema through the processes of assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the broadening of an existing schema to include new information. Accommodation is the modification of a schema as new information is incorporated. Criticism of the sensory motor Stage While most develop mentalists accept Piagets outline of cognitive growth in infants, there are questions about his measures of assessing their development. It is agreed that object permanence is developed as the child develops an understanding of the permanence of objects, and that uncovering a hidden toy is a demonstration of this, but it is felt that Piaget did not take into account the need for motivation in order for hildren to search, or the fact that very young infants may not have the knowledge of how to search. We will write a custom essay sample on The Criticism of Jean Piagets Theories. or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Kagans theory of object permanence is that 9 month old infants show an ability to search for hidden objects because they have had a growth in memory capacity, rather than because they have a new cognitive structure as stated by Piaget (Kagan, cited in Berger,1988). Other develop mentalists claim that Piagets description of sensor motor intelligence overemphasizes the motor aspects of cognitive development to the detriment of the sensory aspects. Piaget believed children showed intellectual development through their actions, but perception researchers believe that infants know more than they can physically demonstrate with limited motor actions. They have found that newborn infants try to look for sounds, grasp objects and respond to human faces, and believe that perceptual learning occurs, particularly aural, before birth. It is now accepted that Piaget may have underestimated early perceptual abilities and cognitive development during the first six months of life (Beger, 1988). Criticism of Preoperational Stage It is believed by develop mentalists that the three mountain task that Piaget asked three year old children to solve was too complex to test childrens ability to see someone elses perspective. It is now believed that young children can see someone elses point of view in a simple way. Similarly, the conservation tests may also have been too complex, and further research has indicated that if a conservation task was presented in a simplified, fun manner, children were able to understand the concept of it much more easily. Piaget was correct in that, while children are capable for howing some understanding of these concepts, it does take maturity and experience Criticism of Concrete Operational Stage It is felt that Piaget spent too much time explaining the typical child, and did not take into account the individual differences of children, or the differences caused by heredity, culture and education. It is felt that he put too much emphasis on the individuals internal search for knowledge, and not enough on external motivation and teachings (Berger, 1988). Piaget did little research on the emotional and personality development of children and possibly would have been more accurate to iew cognitive development as a gradual and continuous rather than having definite demarcation stages. Piagets information processing approach provides a good way of assessing intelligence and gathering information about memory development and other cognitive processes, but does not take into account the importance of creativity and social interaction (Paplia, Olds, and Feldman, 1998) Criticism of Formal Operation Thought It is believed that Piagets last stage of formal operations is not an accurate description of cognitive development. Nearly a half of adults do not attain the level of ormal operations, and not everyone appears to be capable of abstract reasoning. These people are possibly not cognitively immature, but have different aspects of mature thought not covered by Piaget. Formal logic as defined by Piaget consists of measures such as the pendulum problem and conservation of volume, which indicates that Piaget believes cognition, is bound by mathematics and scientific thinking. However, this form of formal logic is not as important in non-scientific fields such as the arts, history, social understanding and personal Judgment. It also does ot cover other aspects of mature intelligence such as practical problem solving, and acquired wisdom and experience (Paplia, Olds, and Feldman, 1998). Piagets description of overall cognitive events indicates that once a new stage of cognition has been achieved, individuals will reflect it in all areas of their lives. However, it has been shown that cognitive development may occur in some areas of thinking and not in others. A more accepted view of cognition development is that it is an uneven process, with children arriving at each new stage piece by piece as each new skill and ehavior is acquired (Berger, 1988).