Monday, September 30, 2019

Marketing Myopia Essay

1.0 Introduction In line with Levitt (1960), Marketing Myopia refers to the narrow view of myopia, marketing and business environment. This kind of advertising program without any demand with clients but an organization will is to sell goods or services within particular economic markets. It tilted a business to focus on its desire, rather than what the shopping desires, and often modifying to form a culture of immunity each typically end up losing the name, business damage and ineffective commercial practice Levitt, (1960). This is accomplished exploring by them, an enterprise may appear an extra fully meet customer needs and wants, in order to develop its business. It offers a brilliant view of thoughts for your customers. At â€Å"Marketing Myopia,† Levitt (1960), he indicates the current marking statement said: â€Å"Marketing is a stepson† most of the organizations stressed production and marketing. 2.0 Key failing 1980’s According to the case study has shown that, the key failings in marketing as a business practice by Levitt in 1960. According to the article, the main key failing point was they had a management failure does not because the market is not saturated yet the reason is because of their own MYOPIA. These all key failing point has clearly to support and determine how they had a poor management. First and foremost, they watched it was supposed to develop but never take action to developed it, which means they were not looked at the long term while they look at the short term only, which is short-sighted goods for instance, the petroleum. The situation worsened rail transport terrible, because â€Å"they are rail-based rather than product-oriented, they were product oriented rather than customer oriented, they do not care about the client’s wants and there are more on supply but few on demand. As a results that is because why their clients snatched by the competitors. Other than that, they are lack of considering how the rail road can be pant in the prospect future. While those who also a lack of consider how to become an excellent entertainer skills in Hollywood and rather they considered filmmaking. In addition, they have never seen the product as overall and narrow example are not to be regarded as petroleum fuel industry but is deemed the energy business, which is not considered to produce Hollywood movies but as amusement and also failed to watch this industry from any  marketing view. Furthermore, Theodore Levitt defined that there is misconception of manufacturer, they are just think about the particular product and yet they are missed to see the category of the product. The last key failing point in management failure perceived by Levitt is they have a poor product structure, they are not possible comprehensive product development, failed to know its clients product range resulting in the failure of the business and cannot have a good sa les in the market. 3.0 Changes and thinking Regarding to the ideology was that it has to change from product orientation to client orientation and the practice would also move from product orientation to client orientation. How things are done there such a huge increase, because now people are extremely imaginative in how they look to the future, changes in marketing from the product-oriented and service-oriented their thinking ability to widen stricture ideas, their management is changed by catering the needs of marketing person. For instance, the Perils of Petroleum. They created a right of recourse petroleum exploration with advanced technical and know how to enjoy the confidence of senior investors, restrictions in itself technologies oil exploration, oil extraction, oil refining and did not expect substitutes; example of natural gas. The oil company has never been developed gas as a substitute to gasoline. Crude oil is one not being treated as a major patent medicine which is we all knew that petroleum was a very signific ant thing, if not the economy would got ill, this is how they noted that it is a proprietary drug. Oil companies have two items have never wanted to use these two, On the whole as fuel instead of petrol or natural gas. The oil has not been robust growth, oils itself does not have became a greater by the oil firm, and all this because it required to run vehicles and machines. The next will be Dry Cleaning. This industry was a growth with luxury outlook. Once upon a time, try to fancy that it is finally can get them in safely and easily to be cleaning. The boom was on. After thirty years the boom is begin and the industry is in difficulty with competition. The competition is not with related any new technique for a better cleaning, it has come with synthetic fibers and the chemical additives so both of this are resulted cut down the need of dry cleaning. The industrial market is the  latest present invention and business-oriented services, but it faces a number of outdated shadows, because of new inventions in which make this industry even more useless to the clients. Clients with a new and optimal substitutes order to meet their needs (Jahidur Rahim, 2014). In addition, it would be electric Utilities. This was also one of those ordinarily which is ‘no substitute’ products that had been throne base of invincible growth. Power industry continues to boom as wax luxury home is converted into electrical gizmos museum. Electric utility industry has also confront the same issue in the use and production with its new and dynamic change. By that changing of time, electric utilities is also changing very quickly, with the whole changing clients accustomed to using the new and handy utility. The result is a particular product oriented companies are faced with the outdated state. Grocery Store industries which is known in the case is ‘corner grocery store’. In this supermarket has been took over a strong potency. The large big food chains in 1930’s narrowly had escaped aggressive the expansion independent supermarket was completely perished. The first pure supermarket was start business on 1930 in Jamaica long island. 1933 supermarket were flourish in Pennsylvania, California Ohio and so on. Yet, When performed a large chain announced that he discovered ‘the difficult to believe the people will drive kilometers to a food store and sacrifice personalized service chain has improved, consumers are used to Mrs. Consumer’. When 1936 late, Wholesale and retail grocery markets nationwide Association of Convention and New Jersey said there is nothing to fear. For introduction of the new super chain stores and super markets, the grocery store where our neighbors are also likely to face a loss of business. For the first time grocery store shopkeeper believes that these supermarkets are not in their competitive, not originated from their market but they were actually wrong. 4.0 Modern Industry Area Some of industries were acting myopically. The global petroleum industry is generally defined to consist of oil exploration, refining, transportation (oil tankers and pipelines), extraction and the sale of petroleum products. With extensive of the products in the industry, including: crude oil and  other derivative products associated known as petroleum products, and products for use in the petrochemical industry. Industry classification was distributed into five sectors which are upstream, downstream, ships, pipeline, supplies as well as services (Kakada, 2014). The global petroleum industry can drive majority aptly described as the engine of economic development in the world. On the internationally market nowadays, the most remarkable commodities trading is crude. And more than a century, crude oil has always been world’s main energy source. Petroleum industry already described as the most periodic activities and offers exceed 70 percent of global energy demand (Unknown, 2 014). Place a vibrant business environment in worldwide, there have been no changes in the structure of the industry and organizations such as the oil and gas industry has witnessed. From the world today, operating under the influence of significant changes in the structure and organization of the occurrence of the industry is called, and the most noteworthy is that this is balancing among demand and supply of the products. This is particularly in the recent past has become the most extensive decision-making tools and also the trend rest of rising prices for products of strategic planning. In short, on the significant industry changes during the past half-century stand for a new system of marketing of crude oil, exploration and developed state-owned enterprises in the oil-producing countries, the OPEC formation consolidated and acquisitions of the nationalization, and entry the new company. The Industry like any others Industry which has shaped its operating instructions and specific characteristics. From the limited supply of the products in the industry, because it has a non-renewable resource. Although the formation of fossil oil are known, but not in the global scale buried fossil does have each ground have oil. It might sound contradictory, but it is still a fact. Therefore, great value were placed on oil whether of the location it is be found or known to exist, that means oil products extracted still yet to be extracted by that ground is deem to be as similar economic value. Exploration, production, refining and oil resources over the past have been driven transport two forms of investment in the system. The first is related to transnational cartel system, followed by foreign companies. However, in two systems, the main driving force is the oil concession under its control,  which means that even when resources that belong to the ability of the host country, However control of the concession rights have been transferred to those company’s status. The system has the majority of time in this century, and the second world war played a significant impact the activities within the industry. The unique features of this system is the supreme power or right is giving the company to explore, extract and export of petroleum to limit any other investors produce any competitive advantage. In addition, the system allows whoever has the overall control of the concession investments in the host country for the development, the number of natural areas and the right to choose the location of production levels, production facilities, exploration and the transportation Capacity. In theory, this sounds great, but this is not made clear how the state of tax collection and utilization of resources, any tangible contribution to the static role. This makes authorized role of the state, additional dependent, and not as dependent on the concessionaire. The relationship between the state and enterprises level became fiscal. In the long term, the company focused on their profit margins will be under no obligation to meet any state of social economic and political neither the host or nor the requirements of the development the petroleum sector. This system in of a wider perspective, the implication is that the investment decision-making and analysis of the scheme, just consider the world economy. In a simplified manner, petroleum sector is isolated from other departments in order to develop what would improve under what oil companies to host an economic background. 5.0Personal contribution and group dynamic There are certain true in saying goes two heads are better than one. In order to ensure this task and promptly and completed successfully the progress of this task, myself and my honorable colleagues to work together tightly, burning the midnight candles, and make investigations visiting in several local such as public libraries, the school libraries to procurement a reference for this task. But sometimes I was wrote down some records of important parts for what our lecturer in lecturing us on since I might not catch up or missed out some significant parts on this task, therefore I would try to putting more effort on it and I and my group mates usually stay back in college after classes to study more. We attempt as much as  possible and meet our instructors and seniors to help us in certain areas the difficulties to clear our worries and confusion. Before we started this report, we were divided the work of made a presentation in order to helps each other understand more. I with my teammates conduce to the first question, it is to determine the sales as a business observation and Levitt (1960) perceived problems. We were paid a visit to meet each of our group members 2 times a week for this task and the spending hours probably as 1 hour and 40 minutes for every single meet up. In others time, we were discuss via social media such as emailing or have a phone call. Another group of our classmates were contributed on question no 2 which is be show on how the thinking (and practice) has been influence on since then- supported commentaries to the initial article (starting with Levitt’s own updated thinking)while another of the last group were contributed on question no 3 which we were asked to take one business space (which can be one originally checked out by Levitt (1960), or another of your choice) verify whether or not you think it’s currently acting myopically, giving your reasons (evidence!) for your views. Due the hard work and cooperation I had been obtain such a success at the same time learning to work along with my team and got a lot of opinion and put those meaning into the assignment. But also learned more regarding about how to deal or how to well manage a business, with the most important thing to be even more understand is customer-oriented than product-oriented of its only we would exactly comprehend the client needs and wants. My own idea due to his literary works is that Levitt is a visionary because most of the subjects he underlined in 1960 regarding train, Hollywood and petroleum industry turned out to be right many years after. â€Å"It was a very well to start regarding the marketing knowledge’s. 6.0 Conclusion To conclude this task, marketing myopia is a very important and also a broad topic that needs to be solved in so many aspect, by trying to remove the short sightedness that a lot of businesses has been suffered and undergo during the presence. And there are a lot of marketing opportunities that had been ignored or neglected since most of the businesses did not watch or project or plan for the good prospect of their business, why? because of them having a short sighted. When businesses that are having a short sighted  would suffered in the long run while since that there business does not meet up to their clients demand and the services and resulted in having a poor clients services they were being forced to shut down.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Jose Rizal, an exemplary leader Essay

Many were still debating on the credibility of Jose Rizal as the national hero of the Philippines. Many assumes that he was an American hero for he was appointed by the Americans. Others believed that Bonifacio was the real hero for he was the one who fought the battle for the Philippines. Who is who? Who is the real hero, who is the greater leader? I myself believed then that Rizal do not deserve to be the national hero and is not worthy to be called a leader, that was until i enrolled my Philippine Ideology subject. In the course i found out the exemplary deeds of Rizal from his childhood up to his execution. I came to realize why he was chosen to be the national hero. Among his great deeds, his leadership was at its peak when he died at Bagumbayan. Before the his death, he already showed what a leader should be. In his last travel abroad, he was then asked to stay at Singapore and hide their but he opt to continue his voyage though he already knew where will his fate will lead him, a leader must be brave as what Rizal had shown, he was not afraid to face his challenges and he faced these with such bravery. Furthermore, when Spanish armies arrested Rizal, Rizal do not hesitate but he voluntarily go with them, a leader should know when to fight and when to stay calm. In his last days in Dapitan, Rizal was visited by a vast number of friends and relatives, being a leader does not mean â€Å"me† but it is â€Å"we†, because of his characteristics, Rizal gained lot of friends whom together with his family did not left him until the end. Until the death of Rizal he showed that he was an exemplary leader, who among us can face our death as Rizal did? Who among us can sacrifice his own life to the intruders just for the country. Rizal died for me, Rizal died for you. Without his death the eyes of our fore fathers might not been opened and maybe until now we are still wrapped on their arms. Rizal is a hero, a leader, a Filipino.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Ethical Analysis of Eight Mile Road Hearsay Accident Essay

Ethical Analysis of Eight Mile Road Hearsay Accident - Essay Example As a result, an engineer is under pressure to explain the causes and consequences of such actions. The incident has raised major concerns within the ECCS Analysis. The primary reason for this concern is the termination of High Pressure Injection, a situation that places the power plant in major trouble (Barbour 12). Facts A pressure valve opened so that it can relieve steam hence decrease pressure due to a minor over-pressurization passing. As a result, the pressure valve failed to close. When the plant operator noticed this inaccuracy, he terminated high pressure injection. It is worth noting that this was a faulty move from the operator because the system was on a two-phase state. High pressure injection is only applicable when the primary system stood in a sub cooled state. Within 20 to 30 minutes after high pressure injection was terminated, the pressurizer level collapsed showing that this was a wrong move. As a result, the operator was forced to reintroduce injection. Significa nt fluid inventory was lost in the 30 minutes that injection was terminated. The engineer reported back to superiors with the facts as required. However, the superiors did not take the nuclear engineer seriously. Instead, they dismissed this as hearsay. It is worth noting that nuclear engineering is governed by a strict code of conduct. ... The engineer ought to make sure that the power plant operations are smooth flowing. This is because the emotions from a nuclear power plant are harmful to the people around and environment as a whole. Residents of Toledo are also major stakeholders. This is because they are the key focus of my decision. The value of life is important to any ethical organization. Moreover, the operator had to know what to do in case of incidences. However, in this case, he took a wrong decision more than once. This risked the lives of all persons in and around the power plant. Moreover, the ethics of the top management are also at stake here because they failed to take action just because they believed that it was from an incredible source (Shrader-Frechette 84). Regulations and Laws Any nuclear power plant is complex. As a result, it ought to be well-designed and engineered to reduce incidences. It is worth noting that it cannot be deemed to be a failure proof. This is clearly seen in the Eight Mile Road nuclear power plant when the pressure valve failed to close. The accident exposed serious shortages in a scheme that was destined to safeguard public well-being and safety. Failure modes ought to be present in any nuclear plant. This is because a commercial nuclear reactor can explode like a bomb. It is worth noting that, in this case, the fail-safe mechanisms were evidently not present. Moreover, the location of nuclear power plants is critical (Maxey 123). This is because emissions from such plants are powerfully harmful to the public health surrounding it. In this case, we are not told where the plant was specifically located. As a result, we hope it was located in a place where its emissions

Friday, September 27, 2019

Media Supported Soldiers During Deployments Iraq and Afghanistan Essay

Media Supported Soldiers During Deployments Iraq and Afghanistan - Essay Example The US army played an instrumental in weakening one of the largest terrorist organizations in the world; Al-Qaeda. The use of images, interviews and consistent reporting from the war on terror-afflicted areas created a connection between the public and those deployed for the purpose of eliminating the roots of terrorism. The sense of empathy and national pride that came into being was as a result of the successive efforts of the media forces. Media is an important tool that was available to the government to create an understanding between the public and the government regarding the effects and consequences of the war on terror. And the media certainly rose to the crisis as from programmes such as the Larry King show, Oprah Winfrey show, and news broadcasts of BBC, Sky News, and Fox News all outlined the risks borne by the army and the sacrifices which were being made for the sake of eliminating terrorism. MySpace and Face book are two social networking communities which have millions of users and this very access makes them a significant media force. Users of these networks include international users from all age groups hence, making the access all that influential. Face book in reference to the role that was played by it in terms of making the nation and the international world was certainly significant. Numerous supporting groups were created for the army forces and many groups were created by all those proud of the efforts of the army hence, initiating a positive movement. (Techtree News Staff ,2008). MySpace being a social networking website with a interactive set-up allows the users to create vides, pictures and profiles. During the war on terror, there was an influx of images and videos which were uploaded which were all connected to the actual sacrifices and efforts which were being undertaken by the US troops in order to create an understanding amongst the people of what the actual picture was. The communities that were created were as a result quite successful amongst the users and the influx of popular votes for polls conducted regarding the war on terror were actually used an indicator regarding the public opinion of the war. The comments page, blogs, groups and bulletins were all used as a technique of gathering public support and hence, the role which was played by these social networking websites was much greater than could have been deduced. All those soldiers and their families were able to receive support from unknown users of these websites who had been unaware till the active use of these websites which awakened a sense of social conscience. (Story,2008) The international users were able to have access to these videos and images as well and the users in fact created groups to show support for the soldiers who had made so many sacrifices for the sake of others. This sense of realization was played

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Analysis of a Business Narrative Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Analysis of a Business Narrative - Essay Example Both, Baidu and Google history describes the story of their origins. However, narrative style adapted to describe their history of origination by both companies, is quite different (Reissman, 1993). It is very important for any narrative to have a plot, a central idea, theme on which the entire construction of narration relies. The plot for business narratives can change according to the customer’s response and needs for that particular company. For example, if a company wants to build an emotional connection with its customers, it will try to make the narrative empathetic and would demonstrate the understanding of emotional, social and cultural values. Similarly, if a company emphasizes on the product, it will focus on its product development procedure and how that product can help provide the consumers with the solutions they want (Fritz, 2008). By keeping the above mentioned key point. Baidu search engine narrative and Google timeline is analyzed. Baidu narrative chooses an emotional plot. It shows cultural connection through one of the poem of the Song Dynasty. Then it further describes, as to how this search engine is best suited to the Chinese people as it is sensitive to the various nuances of the Chinese language. Consequently, Google narrative also builds an emotional connection with its consumers, but the style varies. ... The way the story of Google’s initial years is written, it develops a sense of familiarity for American youth. Almost every university student and graduate in America can identify the sentiments for aims, fears, and unleashed zeal to achieve targets and to find a person who shares the same dream as yours and who works along to fulfill those dreams. The story for Google tells the consumer how this conglomerate was started as a university project by two students, who were no different than the average student today. Thus, it develops a relation of similarity with it users by describing the originators as average students. The timeline mentions every person who has been associated with Google in its initial years, even the cook. This shows the emphasis on the element of respect and contribution for even the smallest participation by people who chose to believe in the company at a time when there was no guarantee of success. By telling the story of its inception in a simple manner and recognizing the input of every person, Google conveys the idea of valuing its employees and their contribution even if it’s of a meager kind. Thus, Google considers its employees as an asset, which are important enough to be mentioned in its history. The company conveys the idea of following one’s dream, even if there are numerous hardships and obstacles along the way. The story of Google is a perfect example of how a small startup, which started in a garage, has now become the world’s largest search engine. The company went against the odds, and even though there was competition present in the form of Yahoo and MSN, Google still managed to create a place for itself. Google’s startup and its values represent American culture from which

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

IDPS Latest Roundup Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

IDPS Latest Roundup - Article Example 280) We worked as transformation leaders and managed to achieve the objectives for full utilisation of IDPS with greater success. We have been working to achieve fully automated systems through the use of Autodesk Revit ROBOT Structural Analysis and Autodesk Ecotet. Today, experts are using these systems to determine the type of framing material to meet their low CO2 emissions target as the changes in the method of building production is required and high degree of accuracy is needed in building production to satisfy the clients to meet the global challenges in building construction (Kim and Haas 764). One of the major setbacks of conventional word processing systems is that they are not able to adjust to the changing requirements. Some feel the learning curve is steep while others feel the errors in conventional word processing systems are very high (Pritschow et al. 280). Additionally, the need for using automated office tools is being realized by more and more offices. One of the inherent qualities of automated office tools such as Integrated Document Production System is their ease of use and its user friendly functions. IDPS utilized for the construction industry will integrate various important software products such as Orion, Autodesk and Atlas Pro. This will facilitate the structural engineers to get accurate measurements of the steel members of buildings. In early 2012, the IDPS group started using IT as a conventional method used for preparing architectural drawings and designs, as the process of preparation of tender documents was time consuming and difficult to work. The drawbacks of the conventional system were - †¢ The designs overlapped and with inadequate support for the management, it created a lack of coordination within the team members. †¢ The design process took 1-2 months, architectural drawings 3-4 months; structural drawing 3-4 months, mechanism electrical drawings 3-4 months, submission 1-2 months and the preparation of bill o f quantities took 3-4 months. Moreover, for the preparation of tender stage it took 20 months. †¢ The lack of coordination reduced the efficiency. †¢ Unnecessary pressure was created on resources and time, ultimately resulting in delay in implementation. †¢ The process involved lots of manual calculations resulting in human based calculation errors and delays, due to which the buildings in Brunei were not able to appear advanced. Advantages of using Integrated Document Production System The Integrated Document Production System which was started by the Department of Technical Services under the e-Government initiative has been successful in achieving the needed efficiency in preparing tender documents and implementing projects (Kahane and Rosenfeld 764). The tools which were included by the IDPS were - Autodesk Revit Architecture, Autodesk Revit Structure, Orion, Autedesk Revit MEP and Atlas Pro. Automation and use of robots speeded up the working, drawing preparation and improving the management of project; additionally improving coordination and integration of the project. It reduced the time needed for completing the projects and provided the needed rationale which worked on tender documents. Further, it was able to provide the analysis of the structure. IT was used to get the information that can be stored in one database and it allowed the administrator to handle and analyse the data in a better way. It also provided improved coordination in the construction industry in the field of quantity surveying, engineering,

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Current and Significant Trend in Health Care Essay

Current and Significant Trend in Health Care - Essay Example The health sector, in the recent past, was marred with a shortage of staff, especially nurses. This was a setback to the sector as many people had to wait in long queues for the services. However, there is an emerging trend where the staffing has been increased. The healthcare sector has employed more nurses and health practitioners to help in serving the up surging demand. For example, according to the US Bureau of Statistics, employment in healthcare increased by an average of 26,000 jobs monthly (Acton, 2013). This is evident that the sector has initiated a plan of increasing the number of people offering services. According to the forecasts in the sector, it is estimated that the number of healthcare workers will have increased overall by 30% by the year 2020. This trend is significant as it has various advantages. First, people will receive high quality services. Secondly, people in need of healthcare services will avoid long queues. Advancement in technology is an aspect that has been gaining prevalence in many sectors of the economy. The healthcare sector has also started to appreciate technology (Ginter, Duncan and Swayne, 2013). In this era, there is a need to enhance accuracy in treatment. This is by enhancing diagnosis of different kinds of diseases and complications in the patients. The use of technology has had a positive influence on accurate diagnosis of diseases and complications. For example, cancer is a complication that is affecting a larger percentage of the American population. Apparently, the complication is controllable and treated with early diagnosis. However, when cancer is in its final stages, it is not easy to control or even cure. According to statistics in 2011, over 45% of practitioners in the health sector were using modern technology, which includes use of specialized computers and tablets. One year later, over 65% of the health practitioners in the health sector had access to

Monday, September 23, 2019

The Punic Wars Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Punic Wars - Research Paper Example However, the two strong rivals in power engaged in war, specifically in the Punic Wars, which was a series of three wars where Carthage was defeated by Rome three times. Carthage was defeated not only because of poor strategy but also because of corruption in its government. On the other hand, Rome won because of its military and political brilliance and sense of unity among its people and military groups. The First Punic War The first Punic War was fought by Rome and Carthage between 264 and 241 BC. It is interesting to note that by 275 BC, Rome had already conquered all of Italy and its goal was to prevent the neighboring countries from getting -------------- 1William C. Morey, The First Punic War, Forum Romanum, 2013. 2Ibid. 3Ibid. 4Ibid. hold of any Roman territory especially Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The first Punic War broke out in Messina, Sicily when the Mamertines, or the Roman mercenary soldiers who were employed by the Syracusan tyrant Agathocles, and who were in contr ol of Messana or Messina, were attacked by the Syracusan forces under Hiero II, the Greek Sicilian king. Upon the attach of the forces of Hiero II, the Mamertines called in Rome for help while Hiero II appealed to Carthage and joined the forces of Hanno the Punic, who just landed in Sicily5. Since Rome and Carthage both had interests in Sicily, the war began and continued for the next 24 years. The final victory of Rome was in the sea on March 10, 241 BC, specifically in the naval battle off the western coast of Sicily. During this time, Rome gained mastery of the sea. As a consequence of defeat, Carthage gave up Sicily and the other islands to the Roman Empire. The Second Punic War Between the years 241 and 218 BC, before the second Punic Wars broke out in 218 BC, the Carthaginians experienced what is known as â€Å"aggressive and unjustified†6 actions against Rome, as stated by the Greek historian Polybius. The treaty that Rome signed with Carthage after the defeat of the l atter was actually breached by Rome as the Romans occupied Sardinia. Rome threatened ----------- 5The Punic Wars, Latin Library, 2013. 6Ibid. Carthage with war and even ceded Sardinia and Corsica and forced Carthage to pay an indemnity. The skirmishes between Rome and the Punic forces in Italy weakened the latter, and the latter had no desire of responding to Rome with war7. As a response to this, the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca occupied Spain in 237 with an army for the purpose of opening new markets as well as for creating a new Carthaginian base for its operations. Hamilcar Barca militarized Spain and this militarization was continued by Hasdrubal and Hannibal and Barca’s son-in-law Hasdrubal. When Hannibal conquered Sagunto, Spain, which was a Roman stronghold, Rome declared another war against Carthage8. Hannibal was placed as the head of the army in 221. In 219, Hannibal seized Sagunto or Saguntum. During this time, the Romans in Rome issued an ultimatum demandi ng the Carthaginian council to surrender Hannibal, but Rome was not obeyed and the council supported Hannibal and accepted the offer of war9. The second Punic War broke out in 218 BC and it is considered as â€Å"one of the greatest military conflicts of the ancient world†10. The series of strategies of the Carthaginian general Hannibal until he was defeated are worth mentioning. The first victory of Hannibal was near

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Home Care Providers Essay Example for Free

Home Care Providers Essay According to Guberman, (1999) the word ‘Home care’ is also known as domiciliary care which refer to health care provided to the patients at home by either health care professional which a times referred to as formal care which in united states they are called skilled care or by family and friends also called caregivers, primary caregiver or voluntary caregivers who give informal care.   The term homecare is used to differentiate it from non-medical care or custodial care which is care provided by persons who are not nurses, doctors or other licensed medical personnel. Direct healthcare providers in homecare Professional healthcares which include: Physicians,   Registered nurses and   licensed practical nurses, Physical therapist. Paraprofessionals which include: Social workers, Speech language pathologist, Occupational therapists (OTs),   Dietitians Home health aides Volunteers which include; Homemaker and chore workers. Companions   According to Williams et al, (2000) the Services provided by health cares are discussed below; Physicians Physicians visit patients in their homes to diagnose and treat illnesses just as they do in hospitals and private offices. They also work with home care providers to determine which services are needed by patients, which specialists are most suitable to render these services, and how often these services need to be provided. With this information, physicians prescribe and oversee patient plans of care.   Registered nurses and licensed practical nurses Registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) provide skilled services that cannot be performed safely and effectively by nonprofessional personnel. Some of these services include injections and intravenous therapy, wound care, education on disease treatment and prevention, and patient assessments.   Ã‚  Registered nurses may also provide case management services. The registered nurses are given specialized education and are licensed to practice once qualified. On the other hand the licensed practical nurses are given specialized training for a given period of time and are licensed to work under the supervision of registered nurses. The intricacy of a patients medical condition and required course of treatment determine whether care should be provided by a registered nurse or can be provided by a licensed practical nurse.   Physical therapist Physical therapists work to restore the mobility and strength of patients who are limited or disabled by physical injuries through the use of exercise, massage, and other methods. They often alleviate pain and restore injured muscles with specialized equipment. They also teach patients and caregivers special techniques for walking and transfer. Social workers Social workers evaluate the social and emotional factors affecting ill and disabled individuals and provide counseling. They also help patients and their family members identify available community resources. Social workers often serve as case managers when patients conditions are so complex that professionals need to assess medical and supportive needs and coordinate a variety of services. Speech language pathologists They work to develop and restore the speech of individuals with communication disorders; usually these disorders are the result of traumas such as surgery or stroke. Speech therapists also help retrain patients in breathing, swallowing, and muscle control. Occupational therapists (OTs)   They help individuals who have physical, developmental, social, or emotional problems that prevent them from performing the general activities of daily living (ADLs). OTs instruct patients on using specialized rehabilitation techniques and equipment to improve their function in tasks such as eating, bathing, dressing, and basic household routines. Dietitians Dietitians provide counseling services to individuals who need professional dietary assessment and guidance to properly manage an illness or disability. Home health aides Home health aides assist patients with activities of daily living such as getting in and out of bed, walking, bathing, toileting, and dressing. Some aides have received special training and are qualified to provide more complex services under the supervision of a nursing professional.   Homemaker and chore workers   They perform light household duties such as laundry, meal preparation, general housekeeping, and shopping. Their services are directed at maintaining patient households rather than providing hands-on assistance with personal care. Companions   They provide companionship and comfort to individuals who, for medical and/or safety reasons, may not be left at home alone. Some companions may assist clients with household tasks, but most are limited to providing sitter services.   Generally this group of volunteers meets a variety of patient needs. The scope of a volunteers services depends on his or her level of training and experience. Volunteer activities include, but are not limited to providing companionship, emotional support, and counseling and helping with personal care, paperwork, and transportation. Effects of indirect staffing in homecare The presence of indirect staff has some positive and negative effects on the patients. Most of these problems are social problems which in turn affect the psychological functioning of the patience. Some of these effects include: Increased emotional effects Increased social problems Decreased food intake. Increased unnecessary counseling. Decreased food intake as a result of emotional effects   Ã¢â‚¬Å"Decreased food intake is an important risk factor for malnutrition, which is highly prevalent among geriatric patients. The emotional nature of the home care experience and the complex organizational setting involved in meal production and delivery services in the home increase the risk for decreased food intake. Everyday emotions are known to have a particularly strong influence on decision-making and behavior in the patience, and have also been shown to influence food intake and its psychological antecedents, such as quality perception and satisfaction judgments.   The direct effect of emotional factor on food is reduced food uptake by the patience while the indirect effects are mediated by the food quality perception on and satisfaction judgment. Quality foods increases appetite hence increased food uptake by the patient†, (Paquet et al, 2003) Reference Guberman, Nancy, (1999); â€Å"Caregivers and Caregiving†: New trends and their implication for policy, British biomedical journal, vol 2. Paquet, C, St-Armaud_mckenzie, D and Honald Jeff, (2003); â€Å"Direct and indirect effects of everyday Emotions on food uptake of elderly patients in institutions†. A Biological Science Journal, vol. 11. William, A,P.S Wagner, M. Buetther, C. Charlebolis ,K. Foster, B. Gustafson, D. Harf, and E. Jamison, (2000);â€Å"Women’s formal home care work in transition†: The impact of reform on labour process change, Biomedical journal,vol.3.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Theories of Morality in Punishment Essay Example for Free

Theories of Morality in Punishment Essay As a society, we have different responses to treating untoward incidences and behaviors. We have different means in which we sanction or punish the doers of the action; yet these mean are all reflected on various theories of morality. Different countries or cultures have different systems of punishment as according to what they conform as morally acceptable to people of their kind. Some sanction death penalty, others rehabilitation, imprisonment or other ways like public humiliation and the like. The following are some theories of morality where such systems of punishments are grounded. Stoicism considers passionate emotions like fear or envy as results of errors in judgment and that a person of moral and intellectual perfection would not have to exhibit such emotions. This theory has something to do with giving verdict to people who have committed criminal case. For example, after court hearings, the jury finds that the accused has done the crime while he was not in the proper line of thinking or was insane, the sanction would be different from those who have found guilty of the same crime. The judge might recommend for rehabilitation or medical treatment instead of imprisonment or death penalty that might jeopardize the rationality of the person. Egoism, on the other hand, claims that persons act in response to self-interest. That is, the verdict to a case can be motivated by the interest of the jury to satisfy his own self or if he will be benefited from the result of the punishment. For example, the judge has been paid to overturn his verdict on a certain case; if the judge is thinking of his personal interest, he will do such in the name of money. Who would not want to get money for just a single court decision? Concurrent to egoism is hedonism, which states that only pleasure or its opposite, pain, motivates persons in their decision. Our responses to certain bad behavior done to us or to others depends whether we can get pleasure or we experienced pain. The response could be brutal when it is motivated by pain or the other way around when it is motivated by pleasure. In these three theories, the central subject is the self; where the measure for morality depends on what is most acceptable to the â€Å"self†. Other theories that affect decisions about morality include a gender-based one. Carol Gilligan on his work In a Different Voice states that men and women use different approaches to morality. According to her, the male approach is that individuals have certain basic rights and you are respecting those rights. Morality in this case imposes restrictions on what you can do to punish a person; while female approach is that people have responsibilities toward others; thus giving judgment depends on the care for others. On the other hand, Lawrence Kohlberg theorized about the stages of moral development that includes: punishment and obedience, instrumental exchange, interpersonal conformity, law and order, prior rights and social contract, and universal ethical principles. All these have something to do respect to laws and conformity to individual rights. The first stage for instance is the opposite of each other, meaning, when anyone breaks the rule or law or disobeys it, he or she will be punished according to the fifth stage prior rights and social contract. Social contract could be written or unwritten but these are contracts that state the punishments of any untoward behavior as a violation to the individual rights of persons. The above theories stipulate that justice systems are products of moral judgment anchored to the rights of individuals or the interest of people to the rights of others — either exploitation or preservation. References: Cory, Rachel. (2006). Kolhberg’s Stages of Moral Development. Retrieved December 2, 2008 from http://www. aggelia. com/htdocs/kohlberg. shtml Cypher, Allen. (____). Notes on In a Different Voice by Carol Gilligan. Retrieved December 2, 2008 from http://acypher. com/BookNotes/Gilligan. html Stoicism, Egoism and Hedonism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/

Friday, September 20, 2019

Aerobic and Resistance Training Effect on Lipoprotein Levels

Aerobic and Resistance Training Effect on Lipoprotein Levels INTRODUCTION Obesity in adult population is related to obesity during their childhood. In addition, obese adolescents are at risk of developing obesity as adults, who tend to have abnormal lipid and glucose levels (1). Obesity is one of the major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases (14) Altered metabolism of lipids is observed in obese individuals. (3) ) It has been suggested that high levels of cholesterol among children and adolescents is positively associated with development of future coronary heart disease.(5)In obese children and adolescents, increased low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and low levels of High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol occur as abnormal lipid profile.(4,18)Among these, high density lipoprotein cholesterol is an important marker for risk of developing cardiovascular disease.(6) High density lipoprotein level alone is indicative of development of coronary artery disease and there is negative relationship between level of high density lipoprote in and occurrence of cardiovascular abnormality. (7) In contrast to increased low density lipoprotein levels, increased high density lipoprotein level provides protection against atherosclerosis process. High density lipoprotein performs this protective function by removing extra cholesterol from macrophages in the arterial walls to the liver for excretion through bile. This process is known as Reverse cholesterol transport. Further, high density lipoprotein (HDL) also has anti-oxidant properties. (2, 19) In addition to cardio protective action, high density lipoprotein protects against Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. So, alteration in serum levels of high density lipoproteins will affect the future management of cardiovascular and degenerative neuronal disorders. (7) High density lipoprotein levels are elevated in those who are physically active. (8) Exercise has been identified as effective treatment for maintaining normal lipid levels in adolescents. (9) So, it has been widely accepted that regular aerobic training improves high density lipoprotein levels and thus protects against cardiovascular abnormalities.(8) Resistance exercise also has shown improvements in High density lipoprotein levels.(10) Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of aerobic and resistance training on high density lipoprotein levels in obese adolescent males. Independent variable Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training are independent variables for this study. Dependent variables Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol level Hypotheses H1: There will be significant change in high density lipoprotein level following aerobic exercise training. Ho1: There will be no difference in change in high density lipoprotein level following aerobic exercise training. H2: There will be significant change in high density lipoprotein level following resistance exercise training. Ho2: There will be no difference in change in high density lipoprotein level following resistance exercise training. H3: There will be significant difference in change in high density lipoprotein levels between both groups. Ho3: There will be no difference in change in high density lipoprotein levels between both groups. Assumption It is assumed that participants will not change their lifestyle and diet habits during study duration. Participants are not taking medicines which can affect the outcome and will give best efforts during exercise. Delimitations In this study participants will be male obese adolescents only. Limitations This study covers limited age group. (13-15 years) Study focuses on obese male individuals only. LITERATURE REVIEW Plourde (2002) investigated impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles in adolescents at different age groups in relation to adulthood. This study was done in two stages. In the first stage participants were classified in overweight group and control group according to the Body Mass Index (BMI).BMI ≠¥85th percentile was considered overweight, BMI ≠¥95th percentile was considered obese and BMI ≠¤85th percentile were taken as controls. Glucose and lipid profiles were measured in these subjects. Association between glucose and lipid profiles with anthropometric measurements was founded. Second study was retrospective prospective longitudinal study to determine association of obesity in adolescence with that of obesity in adulthood and obesity related risk factors. Seven different age groups from 9 to 38 years were studied from 1974 to 2000. It was concluded that lipid profile and glucose are related to anthropometric measures in adolescents. In addition to this obesi ty in adolescents of 13-15 years was found important factor for obesity in adulthood. (1) Zhang et al. (2014) studied the association of simple anthropometric indices and body fat with early atherosclerosis and lipid profiles in Chinese adults. Purpose of this study was to determine the best adiposity index to predict the early atherosclerosis and abnormal lipid profiles. In this study 2,063 women and 814 men participated. Assessment for body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio and waist to height ratio were taken. Along with this intima media thickness of common carotid artery, internal carotid arteries and bifurcation were measured. Fasting Lipid profiles were assessed. Statistical analysis was conducted to know the relation between the measures. It was found that waist circumference, waist to hip ratio and waist to height ratio were closely related to intima media thickness and lipid profiles. Based on the results, it was concluded that abdominal anthropometric measures were associated with lipid profile and atherosclerosis. Waist circumference was sugg ested to be the best measurement for its simple use. Takami et al. (2001) found relation between body fat distributions, metabolic abnormalities and carotid atherosclerosis. In this study, it was hypothesized that the intra-abdominal fat is more important factor over general adiposity to predict metabolic abnormalities and atherosclerosis. This cross sectional study included 849 Japanese men with 20-70 years of age. Body mass index was taken as general adiposity measurement. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and computed tomography were taken as measure of intra-abdominal fat distribution. Relation between these factors and lipid profile, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and intima media thickness was analyzed. Results showed association between these factors. It was concluded that body mass index and waist hip ratio are better clinical predictors of carotid atherosclerosis. Chang, Liu, Zhao, Li and Yu (2008) examined the effect of supervised exercise training on metabolic risk factors and physical fitness in Chinese obese children in early puberty. In this study, 49 obese children of 12 to 14 year of age were divided into control and exercise groups. Exercise group was given 9 to 12 months of supervised exercise training and health education once every 3 months. Control group was given only health education. Improved insulin sensitivity and associated factors of metabolic syndrome along with slowed progression of obesity was observed in exercise group. It was concluded that obesity and physical inactivity continue in adulthood and are risk factors for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. (11) Flynn et al. (2013) studied factors associated with low High density lipoprotein cholesterol in middle school children with mean age of 11.6 years and observed that overweight or obesity was related to lower levels of high density lipoproteins. There were1104 participants in this study. Participants were analyzed with laboratory screening of lipid profile, blood pressure and physical assessment of body mass index and physical activity. It was concluded that increased fitness and healthy weight management are more likely to increase high density lipoprotein levels in children and adolescents. (6) Kelley and Kelley (2006) studied the effects of aerobic exercises and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in children and adolescents.12 Randomized control trials containing 389 subjects with age group of 5 to 19 years and minimum 4 weeks of exercise interventions were included in this meta-analysis. Effects were aerobic training was observed on high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides and total cholesterol. Results showed significant reduction in triglyceride levels along with trend of elevated high density lipoproteins in overweight and obese subjects. (5) Mohammadi et al. (2014) studied the effect of 12 week of aerobic training on homocysteine, lipoprotein A and lipid profile levels in sedentary middle aged men. Subjects were randomly divided into control and aerobic training group. There were 12 male subjects in each group having 40-60 years of age. Aerobic exercise training was given to the aerobic group progressively increasing the duration from 20 to 60 minutes per session. Intensity was increased from 60% of maximum heart rate to 75% of maximum heart rate. Results showed significant increase in high density lipoprotein level and reduction in homocysteine, lipoprotein A and triglycerides level after 12 weeks of intervention of aerobic exercise. Tseng et al. (2013) conducted a pilot study to find out the more effective exercise training in increasing high density lipoprotein levels. There were 40 obese men of 18-29 years of age included in the study. Participants were allotted to four groups. These were Aerobic exercise group, Resistance exercise group, combined exercise group and control group. Exercise intervention was done for 12 weeks. It was observed that either aerobic or resistance training alone significantly raised high density lipoprotein levels, but combined exercise was most effective. (10) Falham et al. studied the effects of endurance and resistance exercise training on plasma lipoprotein levels in 45 healthy elderly women aging 70-87 years. Subjects were assigned to 3 groups randomly. Endurance training group was intervened with walking exercise and progressed from 20 to 50 minutes duration over the period of 3 weeks. Resistance exercise group performed 1 to 3 sets of 8 different exercises at 8 repetitions maximum. Control group did not perform any exercise and continued their normal activity. Interventions lasted for 10 week duration. In the 11th week, lipid profile was measured. Results showed improved levels of high density lipoprotein level and reduced triglyceride level in both endurance and resistance exercise groups. It was concluded that the high intensity exercise alone can alter the lipoprotein levels. Koozehchian et al. (2014) identified the role of exercise training on lipoprotein profiles in adolescent males. In this study 45 subjects participated and they were divided into 3 groups. They were swimmers, soccer players and non-athlete; physically active individuals (control). Each group consisted of 15 individuals. Swimmers and soccer players were participating in their sport activities for at least 3 months immediately before the initiation of the intervention. Swimmers performed supervised swim of 60 minutes for 3 days/week. Soccer players performed supervised soccer training consisting of warm up, stretch, endurance running, team games, strengthening and match for 60 minutes per session for 3 days/week. These interventions lasted for 12 weeks. Plasma low density lipoprotein, Apo-lipoproteins, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured pre-training and post-training. Increase in mean high density lipoprotein levels and reduction in low density lipoprotein level were found in two interventional groups. From the results, it was concluded that regular swimming and soccer training reduces the risk of cardiovascular disorders in adolescents. Kodama et al. conducted meta-analysis to identify the effect of aerobic exercise training on serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only randomized control trials were reviewed. These studies were performed on individuals of ≠¥20 years of age. Studies which had at least 8 weeks of training duration and pre-training and post-training high density lipoprotein cholesterol measurements, were included in the meta-analysis. Sample size of the study varied between 9 to 200 and 1404 of total subjects. Analysis of 25 studies indicated that the mean difference in high density lipoprotein cholesterol change is associated with exercise duration. Approximately, 1.4 mg/dl net rise corresponded to10 minutes increased exercise duration. Study indicated that aerobic exercise is associated with modest elevation in plasma high density lipoprotein level. Duration of the training session was found to be most important factor for prescription. Filho et al. (2011) investigated the effects of exercise training on plasma levels and functional properties of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the metabolic syndrome.30 sedentary subjects were classified into study group which included 20 subjects with metabolic syndrome and control group consisting of 10 subjects without metabolic syndrome. The study group was intervened with moderate intensity exercise training on bicycle ergometer for 3 months. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after intervention. Results showed reduced triglyceride levels in study group. No significant difference was observed in low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins. However, changes were observed in high density lipoprotein sub fractions. It was concluded that emphasis should be given on functional aspects of lipoproteins along with plasma levels. (12) Gomez et al. (2013) studied the effect of 10 weeks endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile. Study was done on 26 healthy young men aging 22.5 ±1.9 years. Subjects were randomly divided into endurance, resistance and control group. Baseline data for lipid profile and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to calculate the total and regional fat masses were taken. During 10 week exercise training endurance group performed running and cycling for 90 minutes per session. Exercise intensity was determined based on the initial cardiorespiratory assessment. Intensity ranged between ventilator threshold 1 and 2.Resistance group performed 5 different exercises at 50-90% of 1 repetition maximum with 90 seconds rest in between sets. It was found that change high density lipoprotein was associated with total lean mass and weight, and resistance training was associated with increased lean body mass. Stoedefalke (2007) studied the effects of exercise training on blood lipids and lipoproteins in children and adolescents. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of exercise on total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Out of the 14 studies included in the review, positive alteration in the blood lipids and lipoproteins was found in 6 studies. No alteration in lipid profiles was observed in 4 studies. Negative effect on high density lipoprotein was observed in one study. However, there was overall improvement in lipoprotein profile. It was concluded that the equivocal result might be due to various methodological problems, such as low sample size, less than 8 weeks of intervention and inadequate exercise volume. METHODOLOGY Subjects Male adolescents age 13-15 years having Body Mass Index (BMI) of more than or equal to 85 percentile for age, classified as overweight and obese according to Center for Disease Control (CDC) will be included in the study (ped).Subjects with cardiovascular diseases and systemic diseases will be excluded from the study. About 30 subjects will participate in the study. Resting measures Informed consent will be taken from the parents of the subjects. Subjects’ age, height, weight, Body mass index, Waist circumference, Heart rate, Blood pressure and plasma High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol will be measured at rest. Testing protocol All subjects will undergo physician’s examination and health questionnaire. Subjects having cardiovascular, hepatic and other systemic disease will be excluded from the study. Participants’ age, height, weight and Body Mass Index will be recorded. Subjects having BMI of more than or equal to 85th percentile will be included in the study.(ped) Subjects will be asked to not to change their dietary habits during the training period. Subjects will be randomly assigned to aerobic training group and resistance training group. Subjects will be asked to have 12 hour fasting period before baseline measurements. Baseline data of Height and weight will be measured and BMI will be calculated as per weight/height2. (kilogram/meter2) and BMI percentile will be calculated according to Centers for Disease control BMI for age growth chart. Subjects will be given rest for the 10 minutes. Heart rate and blood pressure will be measured with palpation and auscultation method respectively, in sitting position. Venous blood will be collected for measuring plasma High density lipoprotein levels. Participants assigned to aerobic exercise training group will exercise 3days per week. Each session will include 10 minutes warm up exercise, 40 minutes of treadmill walking at 70-75% of maximum heart rate. (1) Maximum heart rate will be calculated as 220-age of the subject. This will be followed by cool down period and stretching for 10 minutes. Participants allotted to resistance exercise training will exercise for 3 days per week. Each session will have 10 minute of warm up period,40 minutes 50-75% of 1 Repetition maximum.(2) and cool down period for 10 minutes. Both groups will continue the exercise for 10 weeks. (Banz et al.) Following the intervention for 10 weeks, BMI, waist-circumference will be measured. Venous blood will be collected to measure the plasma high density lipoprotein levels .Statistical analysis will be done to compare pre and post exercise values and to compare the values in both the groups.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Flight in Song of Solomon, Native Son, A Worn Path, Sad Sweet Story of

Flight in Song of Solomon, Native Son, A Worn Path, Sad Sweet Story of Sugar Lips Shinehot, and Portable Promised, and Land First Eagle Story Since the beginning of time all human beings have had a fascination with human flight. Watching a bird soar through the air, one cannot help but desire the same capabilities. Imagine the point of view of the bird that flies high above the trees, among the mountains, over the ocean, and high in the air, far away from the clamor of everyday life on the ground. To have the freedom and power to release ones self from the tribulations experienced with two feet on the ground, and spring up and away into the peaceful, blue sky is a common human desire. Since ancient times, flight has represented the opportunity to free ones self from the chains of oppression. For example, in the Bible, Moses delivered the enslaved Israelites from Egypt and the Lord instructed Moses to tell them, "You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles' wings and brought you to Myself" (Exodus 19:4). Not only does flight represent freedom from oppression, but it has also served as a source of strength: "But those who wait on the Lord/ Shall renew their strength; / They shall mount up with/ wings like eagles" (Isaiah 40:31). Throughout history, Americans have grown up admiring and desiring the many mythical figures with the ability to fly without even having wings. Superman, with super human powers, had the ability to circumvent the globe and save innocent people from harm with his ability to fly. Santa and his reindeer could not possibly distribute toys to children all over the world without the ability to fly. Peter Pan, the eternal child, lived his life consumed in the childish pursuits an... ...51-682. Ed. Penn, W.S. The Telling of the World: Native Americans Stories and Art. New York: Stewart, Tabori, & Chang, 1996. Runnels, T.J. "Rise Above with Eagle." The Red Pathway: Newsletter of Native American Philosophy. (15 Oct 2001). Smoke Signals. Dir. Chris Eyre. Miramax Films, 1990. Ed. Stewart, Holly, and Cheryl Wilson. "Stories of the People: Native American Voices." National Museum of the American Indian-Smithsonian Institution. New York: Universe Publishing, 1997. Toure. "The Sad Sweet Story Of Sugar Lips Shinehot And The Portable Promised Land." Callalou. 21.2 (1998) 327-335. Welty, Eudora. "A Worn Path." The Norton Anthology of Literature By Women. Eds. Sandra M. Gilbert, Susan Gubar. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996: 1641-1646. Wright, Richard. Native Son. New York: Harper Perennial, 1940.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Essay on The Awakening and A Dolls House -- comparison compare contra

Comparison of  The Awakening and A Doll's House        Ã‚   The Awakening, a novel by Kate Chopin, and A Doll's House, a play by Henrik Ibsen, are two works of literature that can be readily compared. Both works take place in the same time period, around the late 1800s. Both works feature a woman protagonist who is seeking a better understanding of herself. Both Edna and Nora, the main characters, display traits of feminism. Both Edna and Nora have an awakening in which she realizes that she has not been living up to her full potential. Awakening and growth is one of the main themes in both of the works. Throughout the works, each woman has a close female confidante who symbolizes the traditional role of women and society's views of that role.    Edna Pontellier is the 28-year-old protagonist in Kate Chopin's novel, The Awakening. The novel takes the reader through nine months of Edna Pontellier's life during which she is struggling between society's expectations of a woman's behavior and her own passions and desires. The story takes place on Grand Isle, an island near New Orleans, as well as in the city of New Orleans.    One summer Edna, her husband, Leonce, and their two children vacation on Grand Isle. During the vacation, Edna meets many people, one of whom is Adele Ratignolle, a woman who becomes her confidante. Adele embodies all the characteristics of nineteenth century society. She stays at home with her several children, is expecting another, and is a devoted wife. Another important person she meets is Robert Lebrun, the flirt of Grand Isle, who awakens Edna's sensual side. Edna and Robert fall in love. When Robert realizes his affections, he decides that he cannot stay in Grand Isle, so he goes to Mexico.... ...ndercurrents, female companions, and strong ideas about feminism. The works were written in the late 19th century when these topics were shocking and controversial to society.    Works Cited Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1985. Clurman, Harold. 1977. Ibsen. New York: Macmillan. Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll House (1879). Trans. Rolf Fjelde. Rpt. in Michael Meyer, ed. The Bedford Introduction to Literature. 5th edition. Boston & New York: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 1999. Martin, Wendy, ed. "Introduction." New Essays on The (Awakening. New York, NY: Cambridge UP, 1988. Rogers, Katharine M. Feminism in Europe. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1982. Templeton, Joan. "Is A Doll House a Feminist Text?" (1989). Rpt. In Meyer.   

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Nanotechnology in Medicine

Nanotechnology in Medicine When thinking of Nanotechnology one could think of the movie G. I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra. In the movie Cobra steals nanotech warheads and attacks the Eiffel Tower and it is destroyed by molecule sized machines in a matter of minutes. At this point in time nanotechnology is nowhere near this far along. Nanotechnology of today is about manipulating different types of matter on a molecular scale thus making them stronger and more durable (Williamson, Kenneth D. New Products). Hopefully we’ll be able to create the nanobots of G.I. Joe in the near future but for now it is just science fiction. With the science of nanotechnology we can revolutionize the field of medicine like never before, destroy cancer in the human body without killing the host body and revolutionize diagnostic imaging technology. Nanotechnology in medicine is often referred to as Nano medicine. One of the first uses of nanotech in medicine was in the early nineties. Silver Nano crystal s were developed and used as an ant-microbial agent in healing infections (Nanotech in Med. ilver coatings). Another use is in burn treatment. The burn dressing applied to burns is loaded with nanoparticle sized antibiotics that are released when encountering a foreign organism (Nanotech in Med. ) Another positive use for preventative care is the use of â€Å"Buckyballs†. Buckyballs are an accidental discovery made by Richard Smalley in the early 1980s; they are a form of carbon which has been found to be able to purify any kind of water thus preventing people from catching water borne sicknesses (Nanotech’s Impact).Currently the fight against cancer uses the bloodstream as the delivery system for toxic drugs. A cancer patient in the process of taking these drugs is subjected to a mind numbing array of horrible side effects. In 2012 a company, Bind Biosciences submitted clinical data on their use of nanotechnology to fight cancerous tumors. Their data shows that more o f the cancer drug is delivered to the tumor and that there were marked improvements in anti-tumor activity. This process also reduced the toxicity to the patients and there was no new toxicity problems noted (Clinical Data.Bind 014). This process will eventually be able to be used with all cancer types as soon as the process is approved. In the past it was hard to determine the exact position and shape of cancer tumors and impossible to deliver cancer fighting drugs to the tumor itself. With the advancement of diagnostic imaging it is now possible to deliver these drugs directly to the tumor itself. Now a person is injected with or drinks something infused with nano-particles and allows scientists a sharper image of the person’s body (Nanotech. Emerging Tool).When patients drink the dye for M. R. I. imaging the dye wouldn’t last. Now the nano-particles being used have a long shelf life inside the body and can be used in subsequent imaging sessions (Nanotech. Emerging T ool). With nanotechnology it is also possible to track an individual cell through its journey in the body (Nanotech. Emerging Tool). At this time the United States of America has invested three point seven billion dollars in its own nanotechnology program and most other developed countries are following suit (Nanotech. Wikipedia).Within the next fifteen years there are going to be some major leaps in technology due to the use of nanotechnology and the human life experience is going to be better than ever before in human history. It is already changing life as we know it and most people don’t even realize it. Works Cited Bennet-Woods, Debra. â€Å"Nanotecnology in Medicine:Implications of Converging Technologies on Humanity. † Nanotecnology in Medicine:Implications of Converging Technologies on Humanity. 49. 4 (2006): 54-59. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. â€Å"Bind biosciences presents clinical data on bind 014. † www. understandingnano. com. UNDERSTANDING NANO.COM, 3 22 201 3. Web. 3-22-2013. Ckakraborty, Mainak, Surangna Jain , and Vibha Rani. â€Å"Nanotechnology:Emerging Tool for Diagnostics and Therapeutics. † ProQuest. Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 17 Aug 2011. Web. 8 Apr 2013. â€Å"Nanotechnology. † wikipedia. wikipedia, 4 7 2013. Web. 7 Apr 2013. (â€Å"Nanoparticles and Their applications. † Nanogloss. com. N. p. , 3 20 2013. Web. 3-20-2013. Williamson, Kenneth D. â€Å"Nanotechnology. † Charleston Newspapers 18 Nov 2007, Sunday Gazette 1C. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. ProQuest www. understandingnano. com. † www. understandingnano. com. understandingnano. com, 3 20 2013. Web. 8 Apr 2013.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Intel vs AMD Processors Essay

In an age where technology is constantly evolving and the demand for performance is increasing, the central processing unit (CPU), also known as the processor, is a main concern for many computer buyers. There are many considerations that take place when choosing a processor such as whether the computer will be used for storage or gaming, will the user be looking for performance in speed or graphics, and individual budget. Among all the different brands the two biggest companies considered competitors are Intel and AMD. Even though each company may have an edge in certain areas, both companies continue to constantly make changes and improvements to their products in an attempt to remain competitive. The purpose of this comparative paper is to look at both companies to determine if one company’s processor is truly better than the other. Literature Review Performance and value are major considerations when deciding to purchase a new computer. Much of a computers performance is based on the central processing unit also known as the CPU or processor. According to Fisher, â€Å"The CPU could be considered the â€Å"brains† of the computer†¦and is responsible for interpreting and executing most of the commands from the computer’s hardware and software. † In today’s market the two leaders in CPU production are Intel and Advanced Micro Device, Inc (AMD). Depending on a person’s computing needs, one CPU might be better than the other when considering price, speed, and performance. Analyzing each companies product and comparing them will help use determine which processor is best for us. Our first consideration will be speed. If speed is a big concern, which it is for many computer gamers, Intel has shown to be the better product. According to Singh, â€Å"Intel processors give you a higher clocking speed, which means they have a higher frequency of work done per second. † Intel is designed different from AMD because it divides the total work into the smallest possible division and then goes through it in a high frequency. AMD goes through it process at a slower rate but processes more of its data per cycle. For this reason, one can not make the assumption that Intel is better simply because it is the faster processor. In addition, AMD has recently made claims that there new Piledriver processor will present stiff competition for Intel’s latest Ivy Bridge processor. Another consideration is power consumption. In the past AMD use to be the clear winner, their release of the Athlon 64 surpassed the efficiency of Intel’s Pentium 4 processor. Since then, Intel has implemented new power management features and has focused on increasing efficiency. As a result, Intel has beat out AMD and currently has the most efficient processors available. An added benefit to lower power consumption is that the processor dissipates less heat and stays cooler. AMD has been known for heating up faster under intense and heavy duty computing conditions. However, it is speculated that the new generation of AMD processors have taken care of the overheating issues. Gavrichenkov (2011) conducted a comparison of the power efficiency of AMD and Intel Processor and stated: Systems based on processors with integrated graphics cores become increasingly popular not only due to possible system miniaturization. In most cases the users decide to go with them, for cost-cutting purposes. Processors like that help to save some cash not only by omitting the external graphics accelerator, but also by allowing to build a more energy-efficient system with total power consumption being lower than that of a system with discrete graphics. There is another bonus to it: quiet operation modes, because lower power consumption leads to lower heat dissipation and therefore the use of simpler cooling systems. (p. ) The next consideration is overall performance. Depending on your needs, performance can be interpreted in different ways. If you compare processors with the same rating side by side it is clear that Intel is the better performer. But, if you are a gamer you will discover that AMD is the better choice. AMD processors are much more compatible with ATI graphic cards. To many gamers graphics are everything and when looking for a processor to integrate with an ATI graphics card AMD is the best choice. If you do not intend on using you computer for gaming and simply would like computing performance Intel is the better choice. Intel has the best multitasking abilities which according to Singh, â€Å"is the ability to divide work into smaller pieces for faster computing. † The final and to some the most significant consideration is price. This is an area where AMD and Intel are clearly distinguished. Although performance statistics show the Intel is slightly better overall, AMD is priced 20% to 60% cheaper. For gamers who are generally under the age of 30, this difference in price makes AMD the favorable processor. To those who have the money and are looking for performance Intel would be the better choice. According to Shulka (2012), â€Å" (Intel) prices will be slightly on the higher side compared to AMD, but given the consistency, superior performance specs and its downward- traveling energy consumption curve. Intel many not have that much to worry about. † It retrospective, it ultimately depends on what it is you plan on using your computer for.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Crusaders vs. Invaders

In c. 800, Pope Leo III assigned Charlemagne as Emperor of the Roman people. This collaboration and mutual understanding between Charlemagne and the church paved the way for the numerous future successes in the conquest wars. The initial steps taken by Charlemagne as Emperor do not imply a lust for power or riches at any stage. What they did imply was his aspiration to educate the people and build an unbiased government system that solely functions towards the well-being of the whole empire.Moreover, the major cause behind the conquest wars led by Charlemagne against the German tribes was to announce the revival of the Roman Empire as far as central Europe, and provide an easy access for the church into the pagan tribes (Einhard 61). According to Einhard, in his book two lives of Charlemagne, the Saxons were an extremely disrespectful people. He states: â€Å"They are much given to devil worship and they are hostile to our religion. They think it no dishonor to violate and transgres s the laws of God and man. † (61).Although the Franks lived peacefully just across the river to the Saxons, consistent crimes like murder and theft eventually gave way to a ferocious war between the two parties. The sole purpose of this war was to convert the Saxons to Christianity and unite them with the Franks (Einhard 61-62). Although the Franks may have initiated the war, it is absolutely transparent that they had no intention of settling matters other than peacefully. This can be deduced from the fact that while crimes were being committed continuously, the Franks bided for a long time until they could endure it no more.It was not only the Saxon war, but the origins of the other conquest wars were also not quite different. For example, the war in Bavaria against Duke Tassilo occurred under similar circumstances. The duke made allies with the Huns disregarding all Charlemagne’s orders (Einhard 65). Einhard states in his book: â€Å"Not only did Tassilo refuse to ca rry out Charlemagne’s orders, but he did his utmost to provoke the king to war. † (66). Wars against the Slaves and Huns also lied along the same lines. Absolute disagreement and disregard of the king lead to unnecessary bloodshed with the same result.Although the actions of Charlemagne may appear to be quite reasonable, the wars fought by the Vikings in Europe are an entirely different story. Their advancements into Europe occurred in various forms; however, they always had a violent and ferocious touch to them. In addition, the Vikings were staunch followers of paganism at the time, making them a more unpopular figure in recorded history. Details of the siege of Paris clearly indicate that the Vikings were solely responsible for their war against Odo, defender of Paris.According to Frederic Austin in his book A Sourcebook of Mediaeval History, Siegfred, the Vikings leader, said to the bishop of Paris: â€Å"†¦if you do not listen to my demands, on the morrow our war machines will destroy you with poisoned arrows. You will be the prey of famine and of pestilence and these evils will perpetually renew every year. † Basically, the Vikings threatened the leaders of Paris that if they do not handover the city, they would wage war against Paris with all their force, resting only after its total destruction. In the same book, Frederic Austin narrates the story of Rollo’s conversion to Christianity too.Although initially he refused to pay respect to King Charles, his conversion had a profound effect on his leadership. â€Å"The duke established for his subjects certain inviolable rights and laws, confirmed and published by the will of the leading men, and he compelled all his people to live peacefully together. † (Austin 165-173). Literally speaking, a crusade refers to a collaborative attempt by a group of people that is aimed to achieve a credible cause, while an invasion implies to the disturbance of an event by an uninvited subject.After examining every war fought by Charlemagne during his conquests, it can be safely deduced that he never fought with the wrong intentions, but always aimed to spread the word of Christianity and enforce peace throughout the lands. Moreover, the wars though mostly initiated by Charlemagne, were always provoked by the opposite party. The Vikings on the other hand, were solely responsible for the provocation as well as initiation of wars. At the time of their infiltration into Europe, they mostly used violent methods to take over the city governments against the will of the people.Although Lief Erikson may have built whole towns in the Americas for permanent settlements, the program eventually failed and the spirit of that deed faded away with time, while the actions behind the more influential settlements of the Vikings in Europe were remembered. Works Cited Austin Ogg, Frederic. A Sourcebook of Mediaeval History. New York: American Book Company, 1907. 165-173. Einhard. T wo Lives of Charlemagne. Trans. Lewis Thorpe. New York: Penguin Books Ltd, 1969. 61-68.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Philosophy †Justice Essay

In most of the ancient world, strong fighters won all the glory. But in Athens, great thinkers and wise men were honored. People listened to them and followed their advice. Even today, people admire the ideas of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Their teachings are at the root of modern philosophy and science. Alfred Whitehead is quoted as saying: â€Å"The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. † If you really know how to read Plato, the truth behind this statement is easy to see. Nearly every great philosophical idea was discussed by Plato to some extent. The best way to put it is the way the Stanford Encyclopedia puts it: â€Å"Few other authors in the history of philosophy approximate him in depth and range. † A great example would be his theory of justice, the present day definition of justice is â€Å"a scheme or system of law in which every person receives his/her/its due from the system, including all rights, both natural and legal. † This definition dates back to Plato, One’s search for the meaning of justice in Platos â€Å"Republic† would finally lead to two definitions : -Justice is Harmony. (Plato, Republic, Book 4, section 443b) – Justice is doing one’s own job. ( Plato, Republic, Book 4, section 443b) However finding these definitions is hardly enough to define justice, so Plato went further and offered two analogies to get a clear sense of what justice is, â€Å"the division of parts in the soul as well as the parts of the state†, the soul (nature) being personal morals and the state (legal) being societal morals. Another would be his theory of human nature, he believed we were rational, social animals. Plato tended to identify our nature with reason, and our souls, as opposed to our bodies. He believed that who we are depends on what kind of a soul we have—a philosopher soul, a guardian or warrior soul, or an artisan soul. This is the general role we should play in society (Theory of self). Success or failure at life depends upon what sort of society we live in. Human life needs to be political for Plato, spent in the discovery of the proper manner in which sociality ought to be organized, and then in the practical implementation of that ideal in our own societies. We are rational and social creatures, but we become who we are in society. In order to become what we truly are, we must live in the true (or ideal) society. Essence is grasped by rational analysis, as it is separate from change. This is yet another theory that according to my view of the world defines human nature, defines who we are as a people and what is required.

Heroism Beowulf and Sir Garwain

Beowulf and Gawain are both presented as heroic figures in their respective cultures. Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrogar, who is the king of Danes. Beowulf explores his heroism in two separate phases- youth and age- and through three separate and increasingly difficult conflicts- with Grendel, Grendel’s mother, and the dragon. His youth heroism as an unfettered warrior and his mature heroism as a reliable king. In his youth, he is a great warrior, predominantly by his feats of strength and courage, which reflected by his fabled swimming match against Breca.His defeat of Grendel and Grendel’s mother validates his reputation for bravery and establishes him fully as a hero. In the combat with Grendel and Grendel’s mother, Beowulf completely shows his fearless and bravery. He makes his battle with Grendel more than a simple slay-the-monster task. By announcing that it will be a hand-to-hand combat, he gains extra glory for himself and the Geatis h king, Hygelac, turning the contest into a feat of strength as well as a fight against evil. He also perfectly embodies the manners and values dictated by the Germanic hero code, including loyalty, courtesy and pride.He shows enough respect and loyalty to king which can be seen from the poem, â€Å"Let whoever can /win glory before death. When a warrior is gone/ that will be his best and only bulwark. †Ã‚  (1387-1389). In the second part of the poem, through a series of retrospectives, I can recover much about how Beowulf comports himself as a king and warrior. Instead of rushing for the throne himself, he does not do what Hrothulf did in Denmark, he supports Hygelac’s son, the right heir, which proving his gesture of loyalty and respect. As Beowulf matures, becomes the king.The poet reflects further on how the responsibilities of king, during the encounter with the dragon, he acts for the good of the people and not just for his own glory differ from those of the hero ic warrior. Even through, Beowulf’s moral status becomes somewhat ambiguous at the poem’s end, he is still deserved as a great hero and leader. Sir Gawain is a humble knight of King Arthur’s court, which can be indicated in the poem, â€Å"I am weakest of your warriors and feeblest of wit/ loss of my life would be least lamented† (354-355).His modest claim to inferiority and his high status at court- he is Arthur’s nephew and one of Camelot’s most famous knights- testify to both his humility and his ambition. Loyalty and bravery are also the significant characteristic of Gawain, he is the only knight who steps out to save King Arthur, he takes the challenge from Green Knight, even though the Green knight essentially tricks Gawain by not telling him about his supernatural abilities before asking Gawain to agree to his terms, Gawain refuses to back off the deal.He stands by his commitments absolutely, even when it means jeopardizing his own li fe. Honest is another valuable virtue of Gawain. In the part 3 of the poem, he conceals from host the magical green girdle that the host’s wife gives him, revealing that, he values his own life more than his honest. He confesses his sin to the knight and begs to be pardoned and he voluntarily wears the green girdle as a symbol of sin which is a fully Christian idea. Beowulf and Sir Gawain are both very brave characters.There are many similarities between the two, and the differences between the two characters are also like night and day. The most significant similar is that both Beowulf and Sir Gawain are symbols of loyalty in their cultures. They also have their share of significant differences in this, but the theme of loyalty is so strong in both characters that it would be dishonest not to mention the similarities. Beowulf maintains his loyalty to his original leader, King Hygelac, while, at the same time, taking on another oath of loyalty to Hrothgar.Similarly, Gawain ta kes on an additional oath of loyalty when stays with the lord. Sir Gawain also shows his loyalty by challenging the Green Knight in place of King Arthur. One contrasting quality that can also be considered a comparative quality is pride. Sir Gawain appears in the beginning of the story as a humble knight. Later in the story Gawain gains more pride as he strays from his faith. Beowulf, on the other hand, has pride in himself throughout his story.In the story it is described how Beowulf makes boasts, and how in one occurrence, he has a swimming race with another man and has to stay in the water for seven full days, wearing his battle armor and fighting off water monsters. One of the biggest differences between Gawain and Beowulf are their faiths. Gawain is an obvious Christian. He celebrates Christmas and New Years. He also attends mass every morning, or so it seems. Conversely, In Beowulf s story, references to Christianity are made, but none of the characters seem to be tied to this faith.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Timid President-Futile War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Timid President-Futile War - Essay Example The wars are considered futile because of the many expectations the Bush administration intended to achieve that did not come to pass, the reason why President Obama decided to withdraw the U.S troops from Iraq after almost a decade of occupation. President George Bush’s decision to attack Iraq was based on unfounded beliefs in the presence of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The Saddam Hussein administration granted the UN and the Americans permission to inspect their weapons artillery to ascertain if they were indeed developing weapons of WMD and even though nothing was found, Bush and his administration believed Iraq did not reveal everything and that formed the basis of American’s invasion of Iraq and the subsequent execution of Saddam Hussein. George Bush’s decision to convince congress to allow America attack Iraq was based on fear that terrorists were likely to attack America again and not necessarily because of WMD that were never found after they subdu ed Iraq. Another factor that led to American invasion of Iraq was interest in the Middle East oil resulting from the fear of uncertainty in the future of American energy security. For this, he saw Saddam Hussein as a major impediment to the benefit they would receive from Middle East oil. They had prevailed upon the United Nations to put economic sanctions on Iraq with the food-for-oil arrangement but this did not deter Iraq, so he believed the best way to achieve their objective was by deposing Saddam Hussein from power. It was therefore an embarrassment to the bush administration when the WMD were never found and nothing could justify the military expenditure on the war (McClellan & McClellan, 2008). President Bush’s fear just before and after the invasion of Iraq began showed up immediately. The United Nations, led by Kofi Annan, opposed the war and proposed a peaceful way of resolving the American suspicion but the administration disobeyed because their fears. It is this very fear that led to interference in the war by civilian commanders based in Washington, which left soldiers on the ground very indisposed. There was also the misconception by the administration that Iraqi soldiers could provide reinforcement and military support. Some Iraqi soldiers did not support the war and posed a great risk to Americans as they ganged up with insurgents to cause trouble to the American troops. In fact, many American soldiers died and had injuries more than the administration had anticipated. As a result of fear, the Bush administration overlooked the process of reconstruction; they did not foresee the magnitude of destruction that resulted from this war. The destruction was so vast that it needed the participation of European bloc, the UN and other international bodies to help in the reconstruction exercise. Although the three segments were interested in participating in the reconstruction, American stubbornness in its interest to lead the reconstruction exer cise after causing destruction made them develop cold feet and some eventually withdrawn. President Bush then made it appear like no country or organization was willing to participate in the restoration exercise. Toward the end of the Bush administration, there was panic both in Washington and Baghdad when it became apparent that there was a political and military vacuum in Iraq. The Iraqi government apparatus collapsed and the institutions that provided basic services like water and electricity could no longer coordinate because staff could not come to work. The Bush administration in its panic started doing things in haste to fill in the vacuum.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Edsons Ridge Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Edsons Ridge - Essay Example The occupation of this location would give them the means to militarily attack United States. With the ridge in their control, they would be one step away from world dominion. From the moment the Allies descended on the ridge, it was a position that the Allies had to hold on to strategically maintain their balance of power. Turning back would mean heavy sacrifice in the war scenario that even in the closing period of the war could be disastrous due to the location of the ridge and the impact it could have on anyone who controlled the region. In the circumstances, it was necessary that the ridge remained in the control of the Allies. The failure of the Japanese to retake the ridge lay on the difficulties posed by the terrain and their miscalculation about the determination of the Allies to stay put. The region was topsy-turvy and dotted with jungles. The Allies, that is, the Americans had secured the area with 12,000 men while the Japanese reckoned they would have to contend with not more than a few thousand men. It was a bloody battle between the United States' forces and the Japanese men of war. The weapons of the battle were artillery as also bayonets. There were even hand-to-hand combats. The Japanese lost men in large numbers. Given the limited nature of maneuver and resource, the Japanese could not capitalize on the elements of time and surprise to overpower the enemy. The limited supply of artillery and means to travel meant that they had to depend more on strategy of surprise and intrigue to achieve their goals (Battle of Edson's (Bloody) Bridge). On 12 September 1944 Kawaguchi divided his forces, sending a thousand strong men to attack from the east of the mound, while his force struck from the west along the ridge that led to Henderson Airfield. An attack on the Japanese base at Taivu Point by Lieutenant-Colonel Edson at this juncture successfully destroyed most of the Japanese supplies. Information secured during this raid indicated a massive attack would be coming from the southwest of the perimeter along a ridge beside the Lunga River. The attack however was short-lived and failed to yield any ground as visualized by the Japanese. The Japanese coordination failed and it was not possible to have all the men in place for the fight. Further strategies to subjugate the U.S. forces met with resistance from well-entrenched positions and the Japanese were outflanked, outnumbered and gunned down with ruthless precision. Added to the miscalculations of the Japanese about the actual strength of the U.S. forces, the jungles made coordination and attack difficult to sustain. The movements of their men could not be synchronized and their attacking strategies lacked punch and depth. They lost men in large numbers and they did not get reinforcements to compensate their lost men. It was almost as if they expected the opponents to cave in to their attacks and when this did not happen they paid for it with their lives. Such tactics spell disaster. It is not advisable even in a state of war. However a battle is full of the elements of risk and intrigue. The Japanese pursued these elements with unequivocal zeal. The strategy of surprise and intrigue normally works if the opposition is less vigilant and less pro-active. The U.S. forces